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Annotated Checklist of
Violins Made Between 1875-1899
(in chronological order)


 

Makers and Brands

 

Cassady, Andrew Lafayette
D., B.
Dressel, Carl
Eichheiner, Heinrich
Ellis, Faye L.
Götz, Sebastian
Hammig, Hermann
Hornsteiner, Joseph
Hougen, Knud K.
Liebig, Franz
Löwenthal, Louis: 1890-1898, 1890-1900
Meisel, Carl Louis
Meisel, Friedrich August
Neuner & Hornsteiner
Paulus, August
Petrovitsch, Ivan
Pfretzschner, G. A.:  1892-1910, 1896, 1899
Reichert, Eduard: 18961899
Rice, G. A.
Stelzner, Alfred
Thibouville-Lamy, Jerome: 1880-1910, 1890-1910
Woolworth, C. M.: 1898 (#105)1898 (#106)



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NMM 1821. Violin by G. A. Rice, United States, ca. 1875-1900. Black ink inscription on inside of back, partially over a large soundpost patch: G A Rice / MAKER. Printed paper label with Greek-fret-pattern border, the year stamped in purple ink: Repaired and adjusted by / V. C. Squier, / Battle Creek, Michigan. / 1900. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, fine grain. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut, plain maple; three large maple dowels, through button into neck heel slightly to treble side of center joint, through back into top block over center joint, and through back into bottom block over center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut, plain maple. Head and neck: maple, medium curl; inside of pegbox stained black. Purfling: single band of brown-stained hardwood. Varnish: medium red with fine craquelure. Fingerboard: ebony. Nut: ebony. Pegs: ebony. Endpin: ebony. F-holes: inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce. Back length: 357 mm. Upper bout width: 167 mm. Center bout width: 112 mm. Lower bout width: 207 mm. Rib height: 31-32 mm. Stop length: 197 mm. Vibrating string length: 331 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 132 mm. Gift of Mrs. Cleo Grabowski, Minneapolis, 1977.




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NMM 10083. Violin by Neuner & Hornsteiner, Mittenwald, 1878. Printed paper label: Neuner & Hornsteiner / Mittenwald (Baiern) 1878 [N H monogram]. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, medium grain. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with faint, narrow curl descending slightly from the center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with faint, narrow curl; one-piece lower rib with scored marks at top and bottom indicating center position. Head and neck: plain maple; inside of pegbox stained black. Varnish: golden. Fingerboard: ebony; bottom edge beveled. Nut: ebony. Tailpiece: ebony; carved saddle flush with upper edge; two string holes for E-A and D-G; beveled face. Pegs: four ebony with mother-of-pearl eyes. Saddle: ebony. Endpin: ebony. F-holes: inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce. Back length: 358 mm. Upper bout width: 167 mm. Center bout width: 110 mm. Lower bout width: 207 mm. Rib height: 30-31 mm. Stop length: 193 mm. Vibrating string length: 323 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 132 mm. Arne B. Larson Estate, 1989.




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NMM 2616. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1880-1890. Printed paper label, the last two digits of year written in black ink: Nicolaus Amatus fecit / in Cremona 1647. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce with fine grain, broadening to medium at the flanks. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with broad curl, descending from center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with medium curl, angled to right on bass side, angled to left on treble side. Head and neck: maple with irregular, broad curl; scroll and pegbox edges deeply chamfered; inside of pegbox stained black. Arching: high on back. Varnish: medium brown; shaded on back and ribs; artificial antiquing comprised of dents and blacking. Fingerboard: ebony. Nut: ebony. Tailpiece: ebony; saddle does not fully extend to edges. Pegs: three ebony, two matching; one black-varnished ebony. Saddle: ebony. Endpin: black-stained snakewood. F-holes: notch corners rounded; inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce lower corner blocks; no upper corner blocks. Back length: 356 mm. Upper bout width: 166 mm. Center bout width: 108 mm. Lower bout width: 203 mm. Rib height: 29-30 mm. Stop length: 193 mm. Vibrating string length: 327 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 132 mm. Gift of Lyle P., Wesley Schulze, and Thelma Schulze Borgstedt, 1979, in memory of their father, John G. Schulze, Burke, South Dakota.

Lit.: Newsletter of the American Musical Instrument Society, Vol. XV, No. 1 (February 1986), p. 1.

André P. Larson, The National Music Museum: A Pictorial Souvenir (Vermillion: National Music Museum, 1988), p. 60.




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NMM 2738. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1880-1890. Unlabelled. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce with medium grain, broadening toward the flanks; maple dowel through top into top block on treble side of center joint; maple dowel through top into bottom block on bass side of center joint. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with narrow curl, descending slightly from center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with narrow curl, angled to the right on bass side, angled to the left on treble side. Head and neck: maple, narrow curl; scroll and pegbox edges deeply chamfered. Varnish: light orange; shaded on back. Fingerboard: ebony. Nut: ebony. Tailpiece: ebony. Pegs: four black-stained pearwood. Saddle: ebony. Endpin: black-stained pearwood. F-holes: inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce. Chisel marks on scroll and pegbox fluting. Thin white string tied to soundpost, extending out of f-holes and tied at back of body. Back length: 359 mm. Upper bout width: 167 mm. Center bout width: 109 mm. Lower bout width: 207 mm. Rib height: 32-33 mm. Stop length: 196 mm. Vibrating string length: 327 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 130 mm. Gift of Mrs. John D. Aldern, Sioux Falls, 1980.




NMM 1298.  Violin by Ivan Petrovitsch, Moscow, ca. 1880-1900

NMM 1298. Violin by Ivan Petrovitsch, Moscow, ca. 1880-1900. Handwritten paper label in black ink, the label and inside of violin stained brown: Ivan Petrovitsch / Mosco. "Russian" model. Body: guitar-shaped with curved ribs; very narrow center bouts. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, fine grain. Back: one-piece, quarter-cut maple with prominent, very narrow curl, ascending from treble to bass; scored mark near endpin indicating center position. Ribs: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with very faint, very narrow curl; first bent to guitar-shape, then carved to a curved shape on the inside and outside and linings added. Head and neck: maple, medium curl; channel in neck at fingerboard position. Pegbox and scroll: edges rounded; reeded rather than fluted, with central ridge. Edging: edges tapered and flush with ribs; not scooped. Varnish: medium brown; slightly shaded; later medium red-brown varnish on scroll. Fingerboard: ebony; very slightly wedge-shaped. Nut: ebony. Tailpiece: ebony; decoratively molded saddle carved rather than inlaid; face carved with image of cherub playing the violin. Pegs: two black-varnished pearwood, not matched; one varnished ebony with mother-of-pearl eye; one ebony with mother-of-pearl eye. Saddle: ebony; curved to shape of edge. Endpin: black-stained pearwood; large. F-holes: wings fully rounded; notch corners rounded; undercut; inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Bottom block: spruce; small. Bassbar: narrow, long, low height. Body glued with casein glue. Body length: 354 mm. Upper bout body width: 167 mm. Center bout body width: 97 mm. Lower bout body width: 210 mm. Back length: 351 mm. Upper bout back width: 164 mm. Center bout back width: 95 mm. Lower bout body width: 206 mm. Rib height: 26-27 mm. Stop length: 185 mm. Vibrating string length: 316 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 126 mm. Arne B. Larson Collection, 1979.

Lit.: André P. Larson, The National Music Museum: A Pictorial Souvenir (Vermillion: National Music Museum, 1988), pp. 32 and 65.




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NMM 1468. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1880-1900. Printed on paper label: VUILLAUME, a Paris, / Rue Croix des Petits Champs 46. Brand on back, below button, the top line of text curved downward at each end: VUILLAUME / Ŕ / PARIS. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce with wide grain, narrowing toward the flanks. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with faint, narrow, horizontal curl; large button. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with faint, narrow curl. Head and neck: maple with faint, narrow curl; inside of pegbox stained black. Arching: high and full. Edging: edges chamfered. Varnish: light brown; shaded. Fingerboard: ebony. Nut: ebony. Tailpiece: ebony; saddle does not fully extend to edges. Tailgut: steel wire. Pegs: nickel-plated steel machine mechanism with decoratively-stamped, nickel-plated steel plates, black celluloid heads; geometric decoration stamped on plates; later. Saddle: rosewood; finished with same varnish as body. Endpin: black-stained pearwood. F-holes: slightly undercut; inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce hollow lower corner blocks; no upper corner blocks. Bassbar: carved from top. Inside of body stained brown. Circular saw marks visible on inside and outside of ribs. Burn marks visible on inside of ribs. Pink string tied to soundpost, extending out of f-holes and tied over top. Back length: 358 mm. Upper bout width: 160 mm. Center bout width: 104 mm. Lower bout width: 196 mm. Rib height: 28-30 mm. Stop length: 197 mm. Vibrating string length: 328 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 133 mm. Gift of Clay H. Johnson, Jr., O'Neill, Nebraska, 1976.

Lit.: Newsletter of the American Musical Instrument Society, Vol. XV, No. 1 (February 1986), p. 1.




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NMM 2546. Violin (7/8-size), Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1880-1900. Brand on back, below button, the lettering curved downward at each end: Stainer. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce with medium grain, broadening toward the flanks. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with narrow curl, descending from center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut, plain maple. Head and neck: maple with faint, narrow curl; inside of pegbox stained black Arching: full, symmetrical arching rises abruptly at edge and flattens out at center. Varnish: dark red, staining varnish; varnish removed from edges. Fingerboard: ebony. Tailpiece: ebony; saddle does not fully extend to edges. Pegs: three black-varnished pearwood; one ebony with mother-of-pearl eye. Saddle: ebony. Endpin: black-stained pearwood. F-holes: inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce; overlap lower corner blocks. Corner blocks: spruce hollow lower corner blocks; no upper corner blocks. Bassbar: carved from top; short; low height. Circular saw and burn marks visible on inside of ribs. White string tied to soundpost, extending out of f-holes and tied at back of body. Back length: 338 mm. Upper bout width: 151 mm. Center bout width: 97 mm. Lower bout width: 189 mm. Rib height: 28-29 mm. Total violin length: 550 mm. Stop length: 187 mm. Vibrating string length: 307 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 117 mm. Arne B. Larson Collection, 1979.

Lit.: Newsletter of the American Musical Instrument Society, Vol. XV, No. 1 (February 1986), p. 1.




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NMM 2590. Violin, Germany or United States, ca. 1880-1900. Written in black ink on top block: 163. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, pine, or fir with fine grain, broadening then narrowing toward the flanks. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with very fine curl, descending from center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with very fine curl; pin holes in lower treble rib near bottom joint, about 5 mm from top and bottom; bottom rib joint on treble side of center position. Head and neck: maple with very fine curl; inside of pegbox stained black Purfling: wide; continues under fingerboard. Varnish: dark brown on scroll, original; dark red on body, later. Pegs: four ebony, two matching. Saddle: ebony; dovetailed into top. Endpin: ebony; small. F-holes: undercut; inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce back linings; no top linings. Top block: integral with neck; rounded edges. Bottom block: spruce; small. Back length: 359 mm. Upper bout width: 166 mm. Center bout width: 106 mm. Lower bout width: 203 mm. Rib height: 31-33 mm. Stop length: 196 mm. Vibrating string length: 319 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 122 mm. Gift of John E. Hansen, Mt. Prospect, Illinois, 1979.




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NMM 4034. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1880-1900. Printed paper label, the first line of text mostly cut off: COPY OF / Josef Guarnerius / MADE IN GERMANY. Brand on back, below button, the lettering curved downward at each end: OLE BULL. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce with very wide grain. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with faint, narrow, horizontal curl. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with faint, narrow curl. Head and neck: maple with faint, narrow curl; channel in neck under fingerboard position. Varnish: dark red, staining varnish; shaded on top, back, ribs, and scroll; removed from edges. Fingerboard: dark tropical hardwood. Nut: dark tropical hardwood. Tailpiece: black-stained pearwood; saddle does not fully extend to edges. Pegs: two black-stained maple, one ebony without the edges of the head rounded off, one dark tropical hardwood with mother-of-pearl eye. Saddle: dark tropical hardwood; finished with same varnish as body. Endpin: black-stained pearwood. F-holes: long; upper eyes closely placed; inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: none. Bassbar: carved from top; short. Chisel marks on scroll fluting. Saw and burn marks visible on inside of ribs. Back length: 358 mm. Upper bout width: 165 mm. Center bout width: 106 mm. Lower bout width: 205 mm. Rib height: 28-33 mm. Stop length: 191 mm. Vibrating string length: 326 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 133 mm. Gift of Jim Taylor, Vermillion, 1986.




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NMM 4069. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1880-1900. Roughly-trimmed, printed paper label, the last two digits of year written in black ink: Jacobus Stainer in Abfam / prope Oenipontum 1719. Brand on back, below button, the lettering curved downward at each end: Stainer. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, medium grain; maple dowel through top into top block on bass side of center joint; maple dowel through top into bottom block on treble side of center joint. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with narrow curl, descending very slightly from center joint; very wide grain converging on center joint in upper bouts; small button. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with faint, medium curl; rib corners chamfered. Head and neck: maple with faint, narrow curl; scroll and pegbox chamfers cut after varnish applied; insides of pegbox cheeks beveled; inside of pegbox stained black; neck channeled under fingerboard position. Arching: full, symmetrical arching rises abruptly at edge and flattens out at center. Varnish: medium brown on top and ribs; medium red-brown on back and head; shaded; removed from edges. Fingerboard: ebony. Nut: ebony. Tailpiece: ebony. Pegs: one ebony with mother-of-pearl eye; two black-stained pearwood; one black-varnished dark tropical hardwood with mother-of-pearl eye. Saddle: ebony. Endpin: black-stained pearwood. F-holes: notch corners rounded; very slightly undercut; inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce hollow lower corner blocks; no upper corner blocks. Bassbar: carved from top; low height. Saw and burn marks visible on inside of ribs. Back length: 357 mm. Upper bout width: 163 mm. Center bout width: 102 mm. Lower bout width: 201 mm. Rib height: 29-30 mm. Stop length: 199 mm. Vibrating string length: 333 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 130 mm. Ex coll.: Carl Granner, Deuel County, South Dakota. Gift of James Garrick, Hillsborough, California, 1986.




NMM 4207.  Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby),  ca. 1880-1900

NMM 4207. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1880-1900. Printed paper label: Jacobus Stainer in Absam / prope Oenipontum 1665. Brand (double strike) on back, below button, the lettering curved downward at each end: SCHWEITZER. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, wide grain. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with faint, narrow curl, descending slightly from center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with narrow curl, angled to the right on bass side, angled to the left on treble side; rib corners chamfered. Head and neck: maple, narrow curl; inside of pegbox stained black. Arching: full, symmetrical arching rises abruptly at edge and flattens out at center. Varnish: dark brown; brittle, prone to scratching and chipping; artificial antiquing comprised of blacking near edges. Fingerboard: black-stained, dark tropical hardwood. Tailpiece: black-varnished, dark tropical hardwood; later ebony saddle. Saddle: ebony; finished with same varnish as body. F-holes: wide at notches; notch corners rounded; undercut; inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce hollow lower corner blocks; no upper corner blocks. Circular saw and burn marks visible on inside of ribs. Chin wear to top on bass side of tailpiece. Back length: 355 mm. Upper bout width: 168 mm. Center bout width: 105 mm. Lower bout width: 202 mm. Rib height: 30-31 mm. Stop length: 200 mm. Vibrating string length: 331 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 133 mm. Gift of Thomas M. Engeman, Sibley, Iowa, 1988.




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NMM 4527. Violin (walking stick), probably Markneukirchen, ca. 1880-1900. Unlabelled. Turned-wood walking stick, the hollowed center forming the back and ribs of a violin, the handle functioning as a chinrest. Top: one-piece, quarter-cut spruce, wide grain. Body: light brown, diffuse-porous hardwood. Purfling: none. Decoration: turned ring at third-position of violin neck. Varnish: clear. Fingerboard: integral with stick; thirteen lines cut across fingerboard, each one at a finger position. Nut: black-stained pearwood. String holder: same type of wood as body; guitar-style. Pegs: three varnished ebony with mother-of-pearl eyes, convex head faces, mother-of-pearl eight-sided, morning-glory-like flowers inlaid on head faces, with incised, red-painted lines, the flowers enclosed in nickel-silver rings, the areas outside and at the center of the flowers filled with black mastic; one black-varnished ebony . Soundhole: circular; 12 mm diameter. Chinrest/cane handle: cane handle is separate piece of wood, the same type as body. Total walking stick length: 780 mm. Greatest body width: 49 mm. Greatest top width: 40 mm. Greatest body height: 32 mm. Vibrating string length: about 335 mm. Gift of Barnes Abell, Vermillion, 1988.




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NMM 5404. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1880-1900. Printed on worn paper label with torn edges: Carlo Testore Milano / Anno [oblit.] Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, medium grain. Back: one-piece, quarter-cut maple with medium curl, descending from treble to bass; two ebony dowels through back into top block, spaced 5 mm apart; two ebony dowels through back into bottom block, spaced 13 mm apart; large ebony crown over upper half of button. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with narrow curl, angled to right on bass side, angled to left on treble side. Head: plain maple. Neck: grafted; maple, narrow curl; possibly original. Edging: deeply scooped immediately inside purfling. Purfling: close to edge; raised in appearance, set into high point of edge. Varnish: medium red-brown; artificial antiquing comprised of dents, scratches, imitation cracks (cleated inside), chipping, blacking, and wear; shaded. Fingerboard: ebony. Nut: ebony. Tailpiece: ebony. Saddle: ebony; lower portion extends into rib about 1/3 of height. Endpin: black-stained snakewood. F-holes: rounded upper and lower wings; lower wings channeled; notch corners rounded off; inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce. Back length: 361 mm. Upper bout width: 165 mm. Center bout width: 109 mm. Lower bout width: 205 mm. Rib height: 29-32 mm. Stop length: 193 mm. Vibrating string length: 328 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 134 mm. Ex coll.: Thomas Hiddleson, Libertyville, Illinois. Thomas Hiddleson was director of "The Elk's Band," 212 Washington St., Waukegan, Illinois, affiliated with the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, Lodge No. 702. In the 1930s, Hiddleson conducted minstrel shows in the Lincoln School, Mundelein, Illinois. Gift of Richard W. George, Libertyville, Illinois, 1992.




NMM 5913.  Violin (1/4-size), Mittenwald, ca. 1880-1900, played by Kathleen Lenski from ages six to eight

NMM 5913. Violin (1/4-size), Mittenwald, ca. 1880-1900. Unlabelled. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, wide grain. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut, plain maple; later maple dowel through back into top block. Ribs: slab-cut, plain maple. Head and neck: maple with faint, medium curl; cheek refacing terminates in points at upper ends. Varnish: medium orange-brown; shaded on back; probably later. F-holes: inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce. Total violin length: 476 mm. Back length: 291 mm. Upper bout width: 131 mm. Center bout width: 86 mm. Lower bout width: 163 mm. Rib height: 23-24 mm. Stop length: 159 mm. Vibrating string length: 267 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 107 mm. Played by Kathleen Lenski, first violinist in the Angeles Quartet, from ages six to eight. She performed the Mendelssohn Violin Concerto on this instrument. Gift of Kathleen Lenski, Los Angeles, 1995.

Lit.: André P. Larson, "One Little Girl's Dream," America's Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter 23, No. 3 (April 1996), pp. 6-7.

André P. Larson, "Three Small Violins, Mittenwald, ca. 1900," South Dakota Musician 30, No. 2 (Winter 1996), p. 22.




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NMM 5921. Violin (1/16-sized) attributed to Joseph Hornsteiner, Mittenwald or Berlin, ca. 1880-1900. Incised into sanded area on back of pegbox: K / A / L. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, fine grain. Back: one-piece, quarter-cut maple with very faint, narrow curl; irregular, wavy grain. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with faint, narrow curl, angled to the right; one-piece lower rib with with scored marks at top and bottom indicating center position. Head and neck: plain maple; scroll grafted; filled hole on back of scroll; inside of pegbox stained black. Varnish: light orange-brown. Fingerboard: ebony. Nut: ebony. Tailpiece: ebony; saddle does not fully extend to edges; mother-of-pearl eye on face. Pegs: four ebony. Saddle: ebony; finished with same varnish as body. Endpin: ebony with mother-of-pearl eye. F-holes: undercut. Linings: spruce; extend slightly over corner corner blocks. Corner blocks: spruce. Saw marks visible on outside of ribs. Total violin length: 369 mm. Back length: 220 mm. Upper bout width: 100 mm. Center bout width: 63 mm. Lower bout width: 124 mm. Rib height: 20 mm. Stop length: 118 mm. Vibrating string length: 202 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 84 mm. Played by Kathleen Lenski from ages two to four. Gift of Kathleen Lenski, Los Angeles, 1995.

Lit.: "Violinist Performs on 435-Year-Old Instrument He Values at $100,000," Los Angeles Times, May 8, 1950, Part II, p. 24.

André P. Larson, "One Little Girl's Dream," America's Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter 23, No. 3 (April 1996), pp. 6-7.

André P. Larson, "Three Small Violins, Mittenwald, ca. 1900," South Dakota Musician 30, No. 2 (Winter 1996), p. 22.




NMM 6019.  Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby),  ca. 1880-1900

NMM 6019. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1880-1900. Small, printed paper label with single-line border: GERMANY. Brand back, below button: CASPAR / DA / SALO. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce with medium grain, broadening toward the flanks. Back: one-piece, quarter-cut maple: narrow curl, ascending slightly from treble to bass; scored mark near endpin indicating center position. Ribs: quarter-cut maple: medium curl, angled to right on bass side, angled to left on treble side, knot in lower bass rib; rib corners chamfered. Head and neck: maple with very narrow curl; inside of pegbox stained black. Arching: full. Varnish: light brown; shaded blacking. Fingerboard: black-stained ebony. F-holes: notch corners rounded; inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce. Back length: 358 mm. Upper bout width: 159 mm. Center bout width: 103 mm. Lower bout width: 200 mm. Rib height: 28-30 mm. Stop length: 191 mm. Vibrating string length: 324 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 133 mm. Gift of Elenor Clements Fetherhuff, Aberdeen, South Dakota, 1996, in memory of Raphael John Clements.




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NMM 4274. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1880-1908. Scratched in top, under fingerboard: Tom / Smith. Scratched on back button: TOM. Scratched on underside of fingerboard: T S. Pencil inscription on underside of fingerboard: Tom Smith Dec. 28 / 08. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, wide grain. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with very faint, medium curl, descending from center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with very faint, medium curl. Head and neck: maple with very faint, medium curl. Varnish: originally medium brown; removed from body. Fingerboard: ebony. Pegs: two ebony; one black-varnished pearwood. F-holes: large notches; undercut. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: none. Top block: integral with neck; wider at top. Bassbar: carved from top; short. Circular saw marks visible on inside of ribs. Back length: 358 mm. Upper bout width: 165 mm. Center bout width: 106 mm. Lower bout width: 205 mm. Rib height: 28-30 mm. Stop length: 19 mm. Vibrating string length: 323 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 132 mm. Arne B. Larson Collection, 1979.




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NMM 59. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1880-1910. Printed paper label in Cyrillic letters, with double-line border and central medallion with the Russian eagle: RIGART S. PETERBERG / RUBUS 1850. Paper label affixed under previous, not visible. Printed paper label visible through treble f-hole, the date written in blue ballpoint pen: REPAIRED BY E. F. LANT / SEVENOAKS. / DEC 1951. "Russian" model. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce with fine grain, broadening to wide at the flanks; maple dowel through top into top block on treble side of center joint; maple dowel through top into bottom block on bass side of center joint. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with prominent, narrow curl, descending from center joint; narrow button. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with narrow curl, angled to left on upper and center bass ribs, and treble ribs, angled to right on lower bass rib; rib corners rounded; edges slightly rounded to continue top and back edging shape. Head and neck: maple with prominent, very narrow curl; inside of pegbox stained dark brown. Edging: edges tapered and flush with ribs; edges not scooped. Varnish: medium orange; shaded; blacking on top near bridge; prone to chipping; light orange varnish on neck. Fingerboard: black-stained ebony. Pegs: four boxwood with flat, undercut heads. Saddle: ebony; curved to shape of edge; finished with same varnish as body. Endpin: black-stained pearwood. F-holes: long; slightly undercut; inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce lower corner blocks; no upper corner blocks. Circular saw and burn marks visible on inside of ribs. Back length: 357 mm. Upper bout width: 165 mm. Center bout width: 103 mm. Lower bout width: 204 mm. Rib height: 26-28 mm. Stop length: 185 mm. Vibrating string length: 323 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 132 mm. Arne B. Larson Collection, 1979.




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NMM 411. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1880-1910. Printed trapezoidal linen label: RIGAT RUBUS / VIOLIN MAKER / Italy - 17th Century / Original label lost / To take apart remove back. Printed linen label, on inside of back above bottom block: RIGAT RUBUS / VIOLIN MAKER / Italy - 17th Century / Original label lost. Handwritten paper label in black ink, with cut corners: Repaired By / A. W. Maget (1936) / Rapid City So Dak. "Russian" model. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, medium grain. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with broad curl, descending from center joint; rosewood dowel through button into neck heel, later. Ribs: quarter-cut maple, medium curl; rib corners rounded; edges slightly rounded to continue top and back edging shape. Head and neck: maple, medium curl. Edging: edges tapered and flush with ribs; edges not scooped. Varnish: light brown with craquelure; possibly later. Fingerboard: ebony; tapered on underside over neck position, to lower height; later. Nut: ebony. Tailpiece: ebony; carved saddle flush with upper edge; two string holes for E-A, and D-G. Pegs: two ebony, not matched; two ebony with mother-of-pearl eyes, not matched, one with "D" stamped on both sides of head. Endpin: brown hardwood. F-holes: slightly undercut. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce; later upper corner blocks. Back length: 356 mm. Upper bout width: 164 mm. Center bout width: 106 mm. Lower bout width: 207 mm. Rib height: 25-26 mm. Stop length: 201 mm. Vibrating string length: 335 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 130 mm. Arne B. Larson Collection, 1979.




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NMM 759. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1880-1910. Brand on back, below button: HOPF. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, fine grain. Back: two-piece maple cut off-the-quarter, with faint, narrow, horizontal curl. Ribs: quarter-cut, plain maple; corners chamfered on each side. Head and neck: maple with prominent ray flecks. Edging: edges chamfered after varnish applied. Varnish: dark brown; shaded; later shellac overvarnish. Fingerboard: black-stained dark tropical hardwood; end of fingerboard sawed off and reattached. Tailpiece: ebony. Pegs: three ebony with white celluloid eyes; one ebony with mother-of-pearl eye. Saddle: ebony; set into top; finished with same varnish as body. Endpin: ebony with mother-of-pearl eye. F-holes: undercut; enlarged later. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: none. Top block: integral with neck; wider at top; spruce shims between top block and ribs. Burn marks on inside of ribs. Back length: 351 mm. Upper bout width: 157 mm. Center bout width: 109 mm. Lower bout width: 198 mm. Rib height: 29-32 mm. Stop length: 190 mm. Vibrating string length: 316 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 129 mm. Arne B. Larson Collection, 1979.




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NMM 2758. Violin by Jerome Thibouville-Lamy [firm], Mirecourt, ca. 1880-1910. Printed paper label: Copie de / Nicolaus Amatius Cremoniea Hieroni= / =mi Filius Antoni Nepos fecit 1676. Small, printed paper label, visible through treble f-hole: [lyre-in-sunburst trademark] J.T.L. Brand on inside of back, visible through treble f-hole, covered by previous label: P[covered]. Pencil inscription on inside of back, visible through treble f-hole: 81. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce with fine grain, broadening toward the flanks. Back: two-piece maple cut off-the-quarter, with prominent, medium curl descending from center joint; center joint cleated. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with prominent, medium curl, angled to right. Head and neck: maple, broad curl. Arching: rises steeply from edges. Edging: deeply scooped. Purfling: close to edges. Varnish: light golden-brown. Fingerboard: ebony; fingerboard sides rounded near bottom end. Nut: ebony. Pegs: four varnished rosewood. Saddle: ebony. Endpin: rosewood. F-holes: slightly undercut. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce. Bottom block: spruce; small. Back length: 360 mm. Upper bout width: 171 mm. Center bout width: 108 mm. Lower bout width: 208 mm. Rib height: 29-32 mm. Stop length: 194 mm. Vibrating string length: 326 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 131 mm. Gift of Elmer Ziegler Estate, Madison, Wisconsin, 1981.

Lit.: Newsletter of the American Musical Instrument Society, Vol. XV, No. 1 (February 1986), p. 1.




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NMM 3975. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1880-1910. Printed paper label: Nicolaus Amatus fecit / in Cremona 1645. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, fine grain. Back: two-piece maple cut off-the-quarter, with very narrow, horizontal curl. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with varying curls, narrow in upper and center bouts, broad in lower bouts, angled to right on bass side, angled to left on treble side. Head and neck: maple, medium curl; inside of pegbox stained black. Purfling: narrow center strip. Varnish: medium orange. Fingerboard: black-stained, dark tropical hardwood. Pegs: four black-varnished ebony. Saddle: ebony; finished with same varnish as body. Endpin: ebony with mother-of-pearl eye. F-holes: slightly undercut; inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce lower corner blocks; no upper corner blocks. Bassbar: carved from top. Circular saw marks visible on inside of ribs. Back length: 358 mm. Upper bout width: 160 mm. Center bout width: 106 mm. Lower bout width: 205 mm. Rib height: 30-32 mm. Stop length: 196 mm. Vibrating string length: 331 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 134 mm. Arne B. Larson Collection, 1979.




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NMM 4346. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1880-1910. Unlabelled. "Russian" model. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce with medium grain, broadening toward the flanks. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with narrow curl, descending from center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with faint, broad curl on upper and center bouts, narrow curl on lower bouts; rib corners rounded; edges slightly rounded to continue top and back edging shape. Head and neck: maple, narrow curl; inside of pegbox stained black. Edging: edges tapered and flush with ribs; edges not scooped. Varnish: dark brown; shaded. Fingerboard: ebony. Nut: ebony. Tailpiece: ebony. Tailgut: iron wire. Pegs: one black-varnished ebony; two ebony with mother-of-pearl eyes, not matching; one black-varnished pearwood. Saddle: ebony; curved to shape of edge; finished with same varnish as body. Endpin: ebony with mother-of-pearl-eye; chamfered edges; turned groove around edge. F-holes: undercut; inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce hollow lower corner blocks; no upper corner blocks. Circular saw marks visible on inside of ribs. Back length: 355 mm. Upper bout width: 161 mm. Center bout width: 106 mm. Lower bout width: 204 mm. Rib height: 26-27 mm. Stop length: 192 mm. Vibrating string length: 330 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 137 mm. Arne B. Larson Estate, 1989.




NMM 4354.  Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1880-1910

NMM 4354. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1880-1910. Printed paper label with single line border, the last two years written in black ink: Antonius Stradiuarius Cremonenſis / Faciebat Anno 1722 [Stradivari monogram]. Brand on back, below button, over varnish, in cursive lettering: Wilhelmj. Pencil inscription on inside of back, near top block: 4. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, wide grain; wooden dowel through top into top block on treble side of center joint; wooden dowel through top into bottom block on bass side of center joint. Back: two-piece maple cut off-the-quarter, with prominent, narrow curl descending slightly from center joint; button angled inward. Ribs: quarter-cut maple of varying curls, angled to left, narrow on center and lower bass, upper and center treble, broad on upper bass and lower treble. Head and neck: maple, narrow curl; scroll and pegbox chamfered after varnish applied. Edging: varnish removed from edges. Varnish: very dark red-brown; heavily shaded; artificial antiquing comprised of scratches and dents under varnish. Fingerboard: black-varnished, dark tropical hardwood. Nut: ebony. Tailpiece: ebony; saddle does not fully extend to edges. Pegs: three black-varnished pearwood; one black-varnished, dark tropical hardwood. Saddle: ebony; finished with same varnish as body. F-holes: large eyes and openings; undercut. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce, hollow lower corner blocks; no upper corner blocks. Bassbar: carved from top; narrow. Chisel marks on scroll. Circular saw marks visible on inside of ribs. Back length: 361 mm. Upper bout width: 169 mm. Center bout width: 112 mm. Lower bout width: 210 mm. Rib height: 29-32 mm. Stop length: 200 mm. Vibrating string length: 330 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 131 mm. Gift of Laurel E. Anderson, San Raphael, California, 1988.




NMM 5583.  Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), Boehmia, ca. 1880-1910.

NMM 5583. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1880-1910. Printed paper label with torn edges and deliberate abrasions: Giovanni Petroni fecit / Cremonae anno 1817. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, medium grain. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with very faint, medium curl descending slightly from center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut, plain maple. Head and neck: plain maple; deliberate wear to scroll. Purfling: narrow center strip. Varnish: medium red; heavily shaded; black ink applied over varnish; artificial antiquing comprised of wear, ink-filled, simulated cracks and dents. Fingerboard: ebony. Nut: ebony. Tailpiece: black-varnished, dark tropical hardwood; saddle does not fully extend to edges. Pegs: one black-stained pearwood with mother-of-pearl eyes; three ebony. Saddle: black-varnished, dark tropical hardwood, finished with the same varnish as body. Endpin: black-stained pearwood. F-holes: inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: none. Inside of body stained brown. Circular saw marks visible on inside of ribs. Back length: 356 mm. Upper bout width: 163 mm. Center bout width: 103 mm. Lower bout width: 200 mm. Rib height: 30-32 mm. Stop length: 193 mm. Vibrating string length: 325 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 133 mm. Gift of Mrs. Harry C. Helm, Columbia, Tennessee, 1993.




NMM 5912.  Violin (1/8-size), Mittenwald, ca. 1880-1910, played by Kathleen Lenski from ages four to six

NMM 5912. Violin (1/8-size), Mittenwald, ca. 1880-1910. Unlabelled. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, medium grain. Back: two-piece maple, cut off-the-quarter, with prominent ray flecks. Ribs: maple cut off-the-quarter, with faint, very narrow curl, angled to right. Head and neck: maple, narrow curl. Varnish: medium orange. Fingerboard: ebony. Nut: ebony. Tailpiece: ebony. Pegs: three stained pearwood with convex heads; one ebony with mother-of-pearl eye. Saddle: ebony; finished with same varnish as body. Endpin: black-stained pearwood. F-holes: undercut; long notches minimally off-set. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce. Total violin length: 424 mm. Back length: 259 mm. Upper bout width: 119 mm. Center bout width: 78 mm. Lower bout width: 149 mm. Rib height: 21-22 mm. Stop length: 140 mm. Vibrating string length: 232 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 93 mm. Played by Kathleen Lenski from ages four to six. Gift of Kathleen Lenski, Los Angeles, 1995.

Lit.: André P. Larson, "One Little Girl's Dream," America's Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter 23, No. 3 (April 1996), pp. 6-7.

André P. Larson, "Three Small Violins, Mittenwald, ca. 1900," South Dakota Musician 30, No. 2 (Winter 1996), p. 22.




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NMM 10090. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1880-1910. Printed paper label: Rigat Rubus / St. Petersburg. "Russian" model. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce with medium grain broadening toward the flanks. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with narrow curl descending slightly from center joint; some spalting. Ribs: quarter-cut, plain maple; rib corners rounded; edges slightly rounded to continue top and back edging shape; lower ribs divided by triple strip of purfling. Head and neck: maple, narrow curl; inside of pegbox stained black. Edging: edges tapered and flush with ribs; edges not scooped. Varnish: dark red-brown; shaded. Fingerboard: ebony. Nut: ebony. Tailpiece: black-stained dark tropical hardwood. Pegs: four ebony. Saddle: ebony; curved to shape of edge; finished with same varnish as body. Endpin: ebony with mother-of-pearl eye. F-holes: wings nearly touching top and bottom of f-hole openings; slightly undercut; inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: none. Bassbar: very short, about 80 mm long; rounded edges. Tool marks visible on outside of ribs, under varnish. Back length: 356 mm. Upper bout width: 164 mm. Center bout width: 108 mm. Lower bout width: 206 mm. Rib height: 28-30 mm. Stop length: 193 mm. Vibrating string length: 327 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 132 mm. Arne B. Larson Estate, 1989.




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NMM 757. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1880-1910. Printed paper label, the last two digits of year written in black ink: Antonius Stradiuarius Cremonensis / Faciebat Anno 1722 [Stradivari monogram]. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce with medium grain, broadening at the flanks. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with faint, narrow curl, descending very slightly from center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with faint, medium curl, angled to right on bass side, angled to left on treble side; rib corners chamfered. Head and neck: plain maple. Purfling: very narrow center strip. Varnish: light orange. Tailpiece: ebony; saddle does not fully extend to edges. Pegs: two black-varnished ebony; one ebony; one black-varnished, dark tropical hardwood with mother-of-pearl eye. Saddle: ebony; finished with same varnish as body. Endpin: black-stained pearwood. F-holes: long; flared wings; slightly undercut. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce lower corner blocks; no upper corner blocks. Bassbar: carved from top; low height. Circular saw marks visible on inside of ribs. Back length: 357 mm. Upper bout width: 165 mm. Center bout width: 109 mm. Lower bout width: 208 mm. Rib height: 29-30 mm. Stop length: 200 mm. Vibrating string length: 329 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 130 mm. Arne B. Larson Collection, 1979.




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NMM 10081. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1880-1910. Printed paper label: Antonius Stradiuarius cremonenſis / Faciebat Anno 17 76 [† / A S monogram in rectangle]. Typed paper label partially glued over previous: August Durer / in Brescia, Germany, 1907 / Conservatory Model. Stamp on flat, unfluted area at back of pegpox: CONSERVATORY [lettering curves downward at each end] / VIOLIN. Rubber-stamp in purple ink on lined notebook paper label: REPAIRED BY, N. ST. CYER. / No. 404 2ND. St. N. E. / LITTLE FALLS, MINN, 1935. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce with medium, wavy grain; maple dowel through top into bottom block. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with faint, medium curl, descending from center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with faint, medium curl; rib corners chamfered. Head and neck: plain maple; channel in neck under fingerboard; inside of pegbox stained black. Purfling: narrow. Varnish: light, golden-brown. Tailpiece: ebony. Pegs: four ebony, three matching, one stamped "GERMANY." Saddle: ebony; finished with same varnish as body. Endpin: black-varnished ebony; no collar. F-holes: large notches; undercut; inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: maple, hollow lower corner blocks; no upper corner blocks. Bassbar: carved from top. Inside of back and ribs stained brown. Circular saw marks visible on inside of ribs. Back length: 361 mm. Upper bout width: 167 mm. Center bout width: 111 mm. Lower bout width: 209 mm. Rib height: 32 mm. Stop length: 192 mm. Vibrating string length (lengthened later): 334 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 132 mm. Arne B. Larson Estate, 1989.




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NMM 1499. Violin by Faye L. Ellis, Jamaica, Vermont, 1881. Inscription scratched and filled in with black ink on inside of back, below bass f-hole, to be read through treble f-hole: F.L.ELLIS / 1881. Top: one-piece, slab-cut pine, wide grain. Back: one-piece, slab-cut maple with bird's-eye figure. Ribs: quarter-cut, plain maple. Head and neck: plain maple; tall neck rise over top edge; large scroll with non-projecting ears; volutes carved from raised sections on sides of scroll; scroll and pegbox not fluted; projecting bottom end of pegbox. Corners: long. Arching: high and full on back. Edging: slightly scooped. Purfling: single black ink line on back, following outline including button; no purfling on top. Varnish: dark red on top, ribs, and pegbox; golden on back. Fingerboard: ebony. Nut: boxwood; sides varnished dark brown. Tailpiece: ebony; wide. Tailgut: iron wire. Pegs: four ebony with mother-of-pearl eyes. Saddle: maple. Endpin: boxwood; some dark red varnish around base. F-holes: rounded wings; narrow upper wings; no notches. Linings: wide beech linings in upper and lower bouts; none in center bouts. Corner blocks: maple; small. Top block: pine; grain runs diagonally to top and back, the end grain facing out; small maple section under top; rounded edges; rounded platform carved from back under top block. Bottom block: pine; small; rounded platform carved from back under bottom block. Bassbar: very short; rounded ends. Back length: 364 mm. Upper bout width: 164 mm. Center bout width: 109 mm. Lower bout width: 200 mm. Rib height: 27-30 mm. Stop length: 207 mm. Vibrating string length: 333 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 125 mm. Gift of Ernest E. Phelps, Vermillion, 1972.

Lit.: Newsletter of the American Musical Instrument Society, Vol. XV, No. 1 (February 1986), p. 1.

André P. Larson, The National Music Museum: A Pictorial Souvenir (Vermillion: National Music Museum, 1988), p. 60.




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NMM 5291. Violin by Andrew Lafayette Cassady, Maynardsville, Union County, Tennessee, ca. 1885-1919. Brand on back, below button, under varnish: ALC. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce or fir, fine grain. Back: two-piece maple cut off-the-quarter, with faint, narrow curl descending from treble to bass. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with faint, very narrow curl. Head and neck: maple, medium curl. Scroll and pegbox: edges not chamfered; scroll ears flat; first scroll volute cut deeply into side. Arching: full arching rises abruptly at edge and flattens out at center. Edging: originally mother-of-pearl; top and back entirely re-edged in spruce and maple by James Reynold Carlisle, at the request of Victor Corsi, ca. 1930. Purfling: single band of maple on back. Varnish: dark brown on scroll, original; medium orange-brown on body, by James Reynold Carlisle, ca. 1930. Fingerboard: ebony; beveled end. Nut: ebony. Saddle: maple; tall. F-holes: slightly undercut. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce. Bottom block: spruce; small; beveled. Bassbar: deeply chamfered about 45 mm from each end. Back length: 357 mm. Upper bout width: 166 mm. Center bout width: 109 mm. Lower bout width: 203 mm. Rib height: 30-32 mm. Stop length: 198 mm. Vibrating string length: 329 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 135 mm. A. L. Cassady was a Civil War veteran who worked as a blacksmith and farmer in Maynardsville, Tennessee, and began to make violins around 1885. He was an uncle of Roy Acuff, the late "King of Country Music," and Acuff learned to play the violin on an instrument by Cassady. This violin was bought by Victor Corsi at a music store in Huntington, West Virginia, in 1919. The violin was restored, re-edged, and revarnished circa 1930 by Corsi's brother-in-law, James Reynold Carlisle, a well-known American violin maker. Victor Corsi (born Achilles Vittorio Coggi in 1893 in Supino, Italy) used the violin thoughout his career as a professional musician, performing variously on clarinet, violin, and saxophone in vaudeville groups, musical comedy and theater, silent movie orchestras, army bands, dance bands, parades, and on a showboat. Groups with which he performed include the orchestra of the Lyceum Vaudeville Theater in Amsterdam, New York, the band on the Goldenrod showboat, Calvin Rolfe's Rainbow Orchestra in New Orleans, Neil O'Brien's Minstrel Show, Al G. Field's Minstrel Show, the pit orchestra of the Grand Theater in Ashland, Kentucky, and the Virginia Military Institute Band (for Woodrow Wilson's inaugural parade in 1918). Ex coll.: Victor Corsi, Georgetown, Ohio. Gift of Walter Carlisle Corsi, San Bernardino, California, 1992.




NMM 6143.  Violin by Carl Louis Meisel, Klingenthal, 1886

NMM 6143. Violin by Carl Louis Meisel, Klingenthal, 1886. Gift of Kurt Lothar and Patricia A. Meisel, Owatonna, Minnesota, 1998.




NMM 6055.  Violin by Friedrich August Meisel, Klingenthal, 1887

NMM 6055. Violin by Friedrich August Meisel, Klingenthal, 1887. Gift of Kurt Lothar and Patricia A. Meisel, Owatonna, Minnesota, 1997.




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NMM 3994. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1889. Printed paper label: Carl Dressel. / Berlin fecit 1889. Scratched on endpin: X ////. Small pencil line on inside of top, under bassbar at f-hole notch position. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce with fine grain, converging on center joint in center bouts. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with medium curl, descending slightly from center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut maple, medium curl; rib corners chamfered. Head and neck: maple, medium curl; inside of pebox stained black. Edging: scooped very close to edge, forming ridge. Purfling: narrow center strip. Varnish: medium orange-brown. Fingerboard: ebony; slightly rounded upper edge, over neck. Nut: ebony. Tailpiece: ebony; saddle does not fully extend to edges. Pegs: four black-varnished ebony. Saddle: ebony; finished with same varnish as body. Endpin: ebony; turned groove around edge. F-holes: notch corners rounded; slightly undercut. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce lower corner blocks; no upper corner blocks. Back length: 362 mm. Upper bout width: 169 mm. Center bout width: 107 mm. Lower bout width: 207 mm. Rib height: 27-29 mm. Stop length: 195 mm. Vibrating string length: 328 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 132 mm. Ex coll.: Claire Brady, Kimball, South Dakota. Gift of Anthony and Robbye Brady, Hemet, California, 1986.




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NMM 4159. Violin, "Heinrich Eichheiner" brand, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), 1890. Print on paper label, the last two digits of year written in black ink: Heinr. Eichheiner / Berlin 1890. Handwritten paper label in black ink below previous: made in Germany. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, wide grain. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with broad curl, descending from center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut maple, medium curl, angled to right on bass side, angled to left on treble side; lower ribs divided by purfling strip. Head and neck: maple, narrow curl; inside of pegbox stained black. Edging: scooped very close to edge. Purfling: set very close to edge. Varnish: medium red. Fingerboard: ebony. Tailpiece: ebony; saddle (missing) does not fully extend to edges. Pegs: two black-varnished ebony; two varnished rosewood. Saddle: ebony. F-holes: long; wide, steeply pointed upper and lower wings; inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce. Bassbar: long; narrow. Burn marks visible on inside of ribs. Back length: 356 mm. Upper bout width: 169 mm. Center bout width: 112 mm. Lower bout width: 208 mm. Rib height: 31-33 mm. Stop length: 197 mm. Vibrating string length: 328 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 132 mm. Gift of Dick Reddy, Yankton, South Dakota, 1987.




NMM 5643.  Violin attributed to Louis Löwenthal [firm], Berlin, Markneukirchen, and/or Schoenbach (Luby),  ca. 1890-1898

NMM 5643. Violin attributed to Louis Löwenthal [firm], Berlin, Markneukirchen, Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1890-1898. Rubber-stamp in blue ink, seven locations on inside of back, three locations on inside of top, upper bouts: Paul Ohm / Jeweler / HOSKINS, NEBR. Pencil inscription on inside of back, upper bass side: Paul Ohm / Berlin. Germany. / [decorative scrolled line]. Pencil inscription on inside of back, below bass f-hole: 18 9 8. / Rep. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, fine grain. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with narrow curl, descending from center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut maple, narrow curl; rib corners slightly chamfered. Head and neck: maple with faint, narrow curl. Purfling: set in far from edge. Varnish: dark red on scroll, original; dark red-brown with uneven color on body, later, probably by Paul Ohm or Lester R. Brueckner. Fingerboard: ebony; scalloped end; later, by Lester R. Brueckner; oak wedge under fingerboard to raise height. Pegs: nickel-plated steel machine mechanism with decoratively-stamped, nickel-plated steel plates, black celluloid heads; geometric decoration stamped on plates; later. Endpin: ebony with mother-of-pearl eye and chamfered edges. F-holes: large lower eyes; inside edges stained dark brown. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce lower corner blocks; no upper corner blocks. Back length: 360 mm. Upper bout width: 165 mm. Center bout width: 106 mm. Lower bout width: 207 mm. Rib height: 32-33 mm. Stop length: 202 mm. Vibrating string length: 333 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 130 mm. Ex coll.: Lester R. Brueckner. Gift of Ruby G. Brueckner, Ocean Park, Washington, 1993.




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NMM 1338. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1890-1900. Printed paper label: COPY OF / Antonius Stradiuarius / made in Germany. Faint pencil line on inside of top, from bass f-hole notch to bassbar. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, fine grain. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with narrow curl, descending slightly from center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with broad curl, angled to right on bass side, angled to left on treble side. Head and neck: maple, narrow curl; inside of pegbox stained black. Edging: scooped very close to edge, forming ridge. Purfling: narrow. Varnish: medium brown. Fingerboard: ebony; paper fingering chart printed in red and black ink, affixed to fingerboard, mostly worn away. Nut: ebony. Tailpiece: ebony. Pegs: four nickel-plated steel tension pegs with black bakelite heads. Saddle: ebony. Endpin: ebony. F-holes: inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce. Back length: 358 mm. Upper bout width: 163 mm. Center bout width: 106 mm. Lower bout width: 201 mm. Rib height: 28-31 mm. Stop length: 195 mm. Vibrating string length: 328 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 135 mm. Used by the Boelsem family orchestra in the Chamberlain, South Dakota, area in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. John W. Price, Chamberlain, South Dakota, 1975.




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NMM 3450. Violin by Louis Löwenthal [firm], Berlin, Markneukirchen, and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1890-1900. Printed paper label: [trademark with violin, bow, and ribbon, the initials L. L. below] Manufactured in Berlin / Special Copy of Antonius Straduarius. [sic.] [L in a foliage wreath tied with a ribbon] Stamp on bassbar in purple ink, with gothic lettering: Herdell Merrill. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce with fine grain, broadening toward the flanks; dowel through top into top block on treble side of center joint, now missing. Back: two-piece maple cut slightly off-the-quarter, with faint, narrow curl descending slightly from center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut, plain maple; rib corners chamfered. Head and neck: plain maple; maple shim between back button and neck heel; inside of pegbox stained black; A-D and E-G pegs grouped together. Purfling: set in far from edge; very narrow center strip. Varnish: dark brown, staining varnish with uneven color. Fingerboard: ebony. Saddle: ebony. F-holes: slightly undercut. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce. Inside of back stained brown. Circular saw and burn marks visible on inside of ribs. Back length: 360 mm. Upper bout width: 162 mm. Center bout width: 107 mm. Lower bout width: 203 mm. Rib height: 31-32 mm. Stop length: 196 mm. Vibrating string length: 332 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 135 mm. Gift of Richard P. Norton, Algona, Iowa, 1983.




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NMM 2574. Violin, Mansfeld, Saxony, ca. 1890-1905. Printed paper label with single-line border: Mansfeld. Printed paper label: Antonius Stradiuarius Cremonenſis / Faciebat Anno 1716 [Stradivari monogram]. Brand on unfluted area at back of pegbox: CONSERVATORY [lettering curves downward at each end] / VIOLIN / [two tapered lines with dot at center] / STRADIUARI. Scratched on endpin: X IIII. Pencil inscription on inside of back, below bass f-hole lower eye: F. FillMER / 1905. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, fine grain. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with prominent, narrow curl, descending from center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with medium curl, angled to right on bass side, angled to left on treble side; rib corners slightly chamfered. Head and neck: maple, medium curl; inside of pegbox stained black. Purfling: narrow center strip. Varnish: medium red-brown. Fingerboard: ebony. Nut: ebony. Tailpiece: ebony; saddle does not fully extend to edges. Pegs: four black-varnished ebony. Saddle: ebony; finished with same varnish as body. Endpin: ebony; small. F-holes: flared wings; inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce lower corner blocks; no upper corner blocks. Back length: 363 mm. Upper bout width: 170 mm. Center bout width: 110 mm. Lower bout width: 209 mm. Rib height: 31-32 mm. Stop length: 196 mm. Vibrating string length: 334 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 136 mm. Gift of Edith Maude Anderson, Sioux City, Iowa, 1979.




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NMM 2667. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1890-1910. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, medium grain. Back: two-piece maple cut off-the-quarter, with faint, irregular, narrow curl, descending slightly from center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut maple, with faint, narrow curl; rib corners chamfered. Head and neck: plain maple; scroll chamfers cut after varnish applied. Edging: edges capped with alternating trapezoidal segments of maple and black-stained pearwood affixed to a parchment or vellum base, lined on the inside edge with strips of maple and black-stained pearwood, the trapezoidal segments angled to the right on bass side of top, to the left on treble side of top, to the left on bass side of back, and to the right on treble side of back. Decoration: back ornamented at top and bottom edges with floral inlay comprised of narrow-gauge purfling, irregularly cut abalone fragments, and black mastic, and at center with oval-shaped decorative inlay comprised of narrow-gauge purfling, irregularly cut abalone fragments, and black and silver mastic. Varnish: medium red-brown; shaded at bout flanks of top, over inlaid decoration on back, on upper and lower ribs, on pegbox cheeks, and front of scroll. Fingerboard: spruce with black-stained or dyed pearwood veneer; inlaid decoration near bottom end of fingerboard: mother-of-pearl flowers (three) and leaves (two) etched with red-and-green-painted detail, three inlaid nickel-silver stems. Nut: ebony. Tailpiece: ebony. Tailgut: steel wire. Pegs: two ebony with mother-of-pearl eyes; one black-varnished dark hardwood with mother-of-pearl eye; one black-stained pearwood with mother-of-pearl eye. Saddle: ebony; finished with same varnish as body. Endpin: black-stained pearwood with large mother-of-pearl eye. F-holes: inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: none. Bassbar: carved from top; short; shallow height. Back length: 362 mm. Upper bout width: 171 mm. Center bout width: 113 mm. Lower bout width: 210 mm. Rib height: 30-31 mm. Stop length: 198 mm. Vibrating string length: 327 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 131 mm. Gift of Orville Terkelsen, Volga, South Dakota, 1980.




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NMM 3464. Violin by Jerome Thibouville-Lamy [firm], Mirecourt, ca. 1890-1910. Printed paper label: MEDIO FINO / MADE IN FRANCE [lyre-in-sunburst trademark] / J. T. L. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, fine grain. Back: two-piece, plain maple cut off-the-quarter; joint cleated. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with prominent ray flecks; rib corners chamfered. Head and neck: plain maple. Purfling: incised double line. Varnish: dark brown; fine craquelure; brittle, prone to scratching and chipping; slightly shaded. Fingerboard: black-stained pearwood. Tailpiece: ebony; saddle does not fully extend to edges. Pegs: nickel-plated steel machine mechanism with decoratively-stamped, nickel-plated steel plates, three black celluloid heads, and one later copper head; geometric decoration stamped on plates. Saddle: brown-varnished maple or pearwood. Endpin: black-stained pearwood with thick button, turned groove around edge, and mother-of-pearl eye. F-holes: undercut. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce. Top block: spruce; rectangular with rounded edges. Bottom block: spruce; small; rectangular with rounded edges. Circular saw marks visible on inside of ribs. Toothed plane marks visible on underside of bassbar. Back length: 357 mm. Upper bout width: 166 mm. Center bout width: 108 mm. Lower bout width: 206 mm. Rib height: 31-32 mm. Stop length: 197 mm. Vibrating string length: 328 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 130 mm. Gift of Margaret Downie, Vermillion, 1984.




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NMM 3496.  Violin, "Wilhelm Meier" brand, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1890-1910.  Printed paper label, the model name and year written in black ink:  Copy of Antonius Stradiuarius / Made by Wilhelm Meier / Berlin 1823.  Printed paper label with single line border, the last two digits of year written in black ink:  REGRADUATED AND REPAIRED BY / JOSEPH COLLINGWOOD / OTTUMWA, IOWA / 1912.  Top:  two-piece, quarter-cut spruce with fine grain, broadening toward the flanks;  maple dowel through top into bottom block on bass side of center joint.  Back:  two-piece, quarter-cut maple with medium curl, descending from center joint;  later steel screw through button into neck heel;  circular depressions over purfling at bottom block, lower treble bout, and upper treble bout from clamps.  Ribs:  quarter-cut maple, medium curl;  rib corners chamfered.  Head and neck:  plain maple;  inside of pegbox stained black.  Varnish:  medium red-brown.  Fingerboard:  ebony.  Nut:  ebony.  Pegs:  four ebony.  Saddle:  ebony.  Endpin:  ebony.  F-holes:  inside edges stained black.  Linings:  spruce.  Corner blocks:  spruce.  Back length:  356 mm.  Upper bout width:  166 mm.  Center bout width:  106 mm.  Lower bout width:  207 mm.  Rib height:  28-31 mm.  Stop length:  199 mm.  Vibrating string length:  333 mm.  Original neck length (nut to ribs): 133 mm. Ex coll.:  Elmer Disch, Sioux City, Iowa.  Gift of Lillian M. Disch, Sioux City, Iowa, 1984. 




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NMM 4201. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1890-1910. Printed paper label, the last two digits of year written in black ink: Antonius Stradiuarius Cremonenfis / Faciebat Anno 1733 [Stradivari monogram]. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce with fine grain on treble side, medium grain on bass side. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with prominent, medium curl, descending from center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with prominent, narrow curl. Head and neck: maple with irregular, narrow curl; inside of pegbox stained black. Varnish: very dark brown; heavily shaded; artificial antiquing comprised of scratches, dents, wear, and chipping; galloping horse decal affixed to top below bridge. Fingerboard: ebony. Nut: ebony. Tailpiece: brown-varnished maple, later; translucent white plastic saddle does not fully extend to edges. Pegs: two ebony with convex head faces and mother-of-pearl eyes; two ebony with mother-of-pearl eyes. Saddle: ebony; finished with same varnish as body. Endpin: ebony with mother-of-pearl eye. F-holes: inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce lower corner blocks; no upper corner blocks. Bottom block: spruce; beveled corners; grain runs parallel to top and back. Circular saw marks visible on inside of ribs. Back length: 360 mm. Upper bout width: 164 mm. Center bout width: 110 mm. Lower bout width: 203 mm. Rib height: 30-31 mm. Stop length: 196 mm. Vibrating string length: 327 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 137 mm. Used by Dad Parker of "Dad Parker and his Country Orchestra," which played on WNAX Radio, Yankton, South Dakota, in the 1920s and 1930s. Gift of Melvin M. Vieths, New Underwood, South Dakota, 1987.




NMM 5911.  Violin (1/32-size), Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby),  ca. 1890-1910, played by Kathleen Lenski, age one and a half.

NMM 5911. Violin (1/32-size), Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1890-1910. Unlabelled. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, fine grain. Back: one-piece, quarter-cut maple with narrow curl, descending from treble to bass. Ribs: quarter-cut, plain maple; upper bass rib with faint, very narrow curl. Head and neck: maple with faint, medium curl; inside of pegbox stained black. Varnish: medium orange brown; shaded; artificial antiquing comprised of chipping, blacking, and wear. Fingerboard: black-stained ebony. Nut: black-stained ebony. Tailpiece: black-stained dark hardwood; black-stained pearwood saddle; saddle does not fully extend to edges. Pegs: pernambuco. Saddle: ebony; finished with same varnish as body. Endpin: pernambuco. F-holes: slightly undercut. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: none. Rosin deposits on top under bridge. Total violin length: 319 mm. Back length: 206 mm. Upper bout width: 89 mm. Center bout width: 57 mm. Lower bout width: 103 mm. Rib height: 15-17 mm. Stop length: 111 mm. Vibrating string length: 175 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 65 mm. Played by Kathleen Lenski when she started the violin in 1947, at age one and a half. This violin was also used by her half-brother in 1930. Gift of Kathleen Lenski, Los Angeles, 1995.

Lit.: André P. Larson, "One Little Girl's Dream," America's Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter 23, No. 3 (April 1996), pp. 6-7.

André P. Larson, "Three Small Violins, Mittenwald, ca. 1900," South Dakota Musician 30, No. 2 (Winter 1996), p. 22.




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NMM 5062. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1890-1910. Printed paper label: Germany. Typed paper repair label with slightly cut corners, visible through treble f-hole, the text of the label effaced: [oblit.] U. S. A. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce with medium grain, broadening toward the flanks. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with faint, medium curl descending from center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with very faint, medium curl; rib corners chamfered. Head and neck: plain maple. Edging: edges capped with alternating trapezoidal segments of maple and black-stained pearwood affixed to a parchment or vellum base, lined on the inside edge with strips of maple and black-stained pearwood, the trapezoidal segments angled to the right on bass side of top, to the left on treble side of top, to the left on bass side of back, and to the right on treble side of back. Decoration: back ornamented at top and bottom edges with floral inlay comprised of narrow-gauge purfling, irregularly cut abalone fragments, and black mastic, and at center with oval-shaped decorative inlay comprised of narrow-gauge purfling, irregularly cut abalone fragments, and black and silver mastic. Varnish: medium red, later; original staining brown varnish was shaded over inlaid decoration on back. Fingerboard: spruce with black-stained or dyed pearwood veneer; inlaid decoration near bottom end of fingerboard: mother-of-pearl flowers (three) and leaves (two) etched with red-and-green-painted detail, three inlaid nickel-silver stems. Nut: ebony. Tailpiece: varnished ebony; inlaid mother-of-pearl flowers (three) and leaves (four) etched with red-and-green-painted detail, with mother-of-pearl ring set in black mastic at the center of top flower, and three inlaid nickel-silver stems; inlaid mother-of-pearl eye at lower end; nickel-plated steel saddle does not fully extend to edges. Saddle: ebony; finished with same varnish as body. F-holes: slightly undercut; inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: none. Top block: shallow. Bottom block: shallow. Bassbar: carved from top; low height. Circular saw and burn marks visible on inside of ribs. Back length: 359 mm. Upper bout width: 168 mm. Center bout width: 109 mm. Lower bout width: 206 mm. Rib height: 28-30 mm. Stop length: 195 mm. Vibrating string length: 328 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 134 mm. Arne B. Larson Collection, 1979.




NMM 5975.  Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schoenbach (Luby),  ca. 1890-1910

NMM 5975. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1890-1910. Unlabelled. Pencil marks on inside of back on each side of top block: +. Pencil marks indicating the position of the neck and top block prior to assembly. Illegible pencil marking on the lower treble inside of back near ribs. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, medium grain; wooden dowel through top into top block on bass side of center joint, wooden dowel through top into bottom block on treble side of center joint. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple or sycamore with faint, horizontal, broad curl. Ribs: quarter-cut maple or sycamore with faint, narrow curl; rib corners chamfered. Head and neck: plain maple; scroll and pegbox chamfered after varnish applied. Edging: edges chamfered after varnish applied. Purfling: none. Varnish: very dark red-brown; brittle; ribs shaded; varnish shaded over back decoration. Decoration: back ornamented at center with oval-shaped decorative inlay comprised of narrow-gauge purfling, irregularly cut abalone fragments, and black and silver mastic. Fingerboard: spruce with black-stained pearwood veneer. Nut: ebony. Tailpiece: black-stained pearwood; inlaid mother-of-pearl flowers (three) and leaves (two) etched with red-and-green-painted detail, and three inlaid lead stems; inlaid mother-of-pearl eye at lower end; saddle does not fully extend to edges. Pegs: steel and nickel-plated steel tension pegs with black bakelite heads. Saddle: black-stained pearwood. Endpin: black-stained pearwood. F-holes: slightly undercut. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: none. Bassbar: carved from top; short; low height. Circular saw, gouge, and scraper marks visible inside top and back. Prominent circular saw and burn marks visible inside ribs. Back length: 357 mm. Upper bout width: 166 mm. Center bout width: 111 mm. Lower bout width: 204 mm. Rib height: 28.5-31 mm. Stop length: 201 mm. Vibrating string length: 328 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 128 mm. Arne B. Larson Estate, 1989.




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NMM 6132. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1890-1910. Printed paper label with delibrate abrasions and torn edges, the last two digits of year written in black ink: Antonius Stradiuarius Cremonenfis / Faciebat Anno 1724 [Stradivari monogram]. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, medium grain; nails through top into top and bottom blocks, on treble side of center joint. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with prominent, narrow curl, descending from center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with prominent, medium curl, angled to right on bass side, angled to left on treble side. Head and neck: maple with prominent, narrow curl. Purfling: narrow center strip. Varnish: medium orange-brown over faint, bluish-black ground; shaded; later, probably by Halvor Lee. Tailpiece: ebony. Pegs: four ebony, two matching. Saddle: ebony. Endpin: ebony. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce. Back length: 362 mm. Upper bout width: 168 mm. Center bout width: 112 mm. Lower bout width: 210 mm. Rib height: 31-32 mm. Stop length: 196 mm. Vibrating string length: 327 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 135 mm. Ex coll.: Halvor Lee, Spirit Lake, Iowa. Gift of Mary L. Fawkes, Ames, Iowa, 1998.




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NMM 6133. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1890-1910. Printed paper label, deliberately abraded to simulate age, the last digit of year written in pencil: GIOVAN PAOLO MAGGINI / BRESCIA 16[oblit.]4. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce with medium grain, boradening toward the flanks. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with very narrow curl, descending slightly from center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with narrow curl, angled to right on bass side, angled to left on treble side. Head and neck: maple with faint, narrow curl. Purfling: double; narrow center strips. Varnish: glossy, medium orange-brown; later, probably by Halvor Lee. Fingerboard: ebony; thin. Nut: ebony. Tailpiece: ebony; mother-of-pearl eye; saddle does not fully extend to edges; crack in bottom end repaired with tin wire. Pegs: four ebony; later; evidence of tension pegs, now removed. Saddle: ebony; finished with same later varnish as body. Endpin: ebony; two concentric, turned grooves. F-holes: long; notch corners rounded; inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: willow; later, probably by Halvor Lee. Bassbar: short height. Back length: 358 mm. Upper bout width: 169 mm. Center bout width: 109 mm. Lower bout width: 210 mm. Rib height: 30-32 mm. Stop length: 199 mm. Vibrating string length: 333 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 132 mm. Ex coll.: Halvor Lee, Spirit Lake, Iowa. Gift of Mary L. Fawkes, Ames, Iowa, 1998.




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NMM 7469. Violin, and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1890-1910. Unlabelled. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, wide grain. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with narrow curl, descending from center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with narrow curl, angled to right on bass side, angled to left on treble side. Head and neck: maple, narrow curl; extra turn on scroll; scroll and pegbox deeply chamfered; inside of pegbox stained black. Purfling: double. Varnish: medium brown; shaded. Fingerboard: ebony. Nut: ebony. Tailpiece: black-stained pearwood. Pegs: two black-varnished pearwood; one black-stained hardwood with clear plastic eye. Saddle: ebony; finished with same varnish as body. Endpin: black-stained pearwood. F-holes: long; sharply pointed, flared wings; large notches; slightly undercut. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce lower corner blocks; no upper corner blocks. Bassbar: narrow; low height. Back length: 362 mm. Upper bout width: 168 mm. Center bout width: 109 mm. Lower bout width: 204 mm. Rib height: 30-32 mm. Stop length: 197 mm. Vibrating string length: 332 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 133 mm. Gift of Jane M. (Sjoberg) George, Libertyville, Illinois, 2000.




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NMM 7431. Violin attributed to Hermann Hammig I, Berlin, ca. 1890-1924. Printed paper label (possibly not original): Franciſcus Stradivarius Cremonenſis / Filius Antonii faciebat Anno 174. Top: one-piece, quarter-cut spruce with medium, wavy grain. Back: one-piece maple cut off-the-quarter, with prominent, medium curl descending from treble to bass; button is a separate piece of maple; ebony crown over top edge of button. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with prominent, medium curl, angled to left; one-piece lower rib. Head: maple, narrow curl; inside of pegbox painted black under dark brown varnish. Neck: maple, medium curl; grafted. Varnish and antiquing: light golden-brown; extensive antiquing, including, scratches, dents, wear, cracks, simulated repairs, worm holes, re-edging of top, and blacking. Fingerboard: ebony. Nut: ebony. Saddle: ebony; extends slightly into upper portion of rib. F-holes: lower wings slightly channeled; very small notches overpainted black; inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce. Inside of body stained brown, the top block, bottom block, and bassbar lighter. Soundpost patch and cleats on inside of top. Back length: 354 mm. Upper bout width: 166 mm. Center bout width: 110 mm. Lower bout width: 207 mm. Rib height: 29-30 mm. Stop length: 197 mm. Vibrating string length: 328 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 133 mm. Gift of Stephen Meisel, Columbia, South Carolina, 1999.




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NMM 3425. Violin (mute), Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1890-1925. Unlabelled. Mute violin with full maple top, partial back and ribs, and central reinforcing truss rod. Top: one-piece, quarter-cut maple with very narrow curl, descending slightly from bass to treble. Back: partial, flat back, inside edges festooned: two pieces of quarter-cut maple, the grain running bout to bout rather than top to bottom: irregular, very narrow curl. Ribs: partial ribs: quarter-cut maple with very narrow curl; one-piece lower rib. Head and neck: maple, medium curl. Purfling: none on back. Varnish: medium golden-brown. Fingerboard: ebony. Pegs: four ebony. Saddle: ebony; finished with same varnish as body. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: none; ribs do not extend to corners. Top block: spruce; rectangular with rounded edges. Fine-toothed plane marks visible on linings. Fine-toothed plane and file marks visible on inside of top. Top length: 359 mm. Upper bout width: 169 mm. Center bout width: 109 mm. Lower bout width: 208 mm. Rib height: 30-31 mm. Stop length: 19 mm. Vibrating string length: 335 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 137 mm. Witten-Rawlins Collection, 1984.




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NMM 758. Violin made or distributed by B. D., Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1890-1930. Printed paper label with single-line border, the name in cursive lettering: ["B D" trademark with spread eagle inside circle and shield] MADE BY / Sebastian Götz / Stradivarius. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce with medium grain, broadening toward the flanks. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with narrow curl, descending slightly from center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with faint, very narrow curl, angled to the right on bass side, angled to the left on treble side; rib corners chamfered. Head and neck: maple, narrow curl; inside of pegbox stained black. Varnish: dark red. Fingerboard: black-varnished, dark tropical hardwood. Pegs: three black-varnished pearwood. Saddle: ebony; finished with same varnish as body. F-holes: flared wings; undercut; inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce hollow lower corner blocks; no upper corner blocks. Back length: 357 mm. Upper bout width: 163 mm. Center bout width: 106 mm. Lower bout width: 204 mm. Rib height: 29-31 mm. Stop length: 197 mm. Vibrating string length: 328 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 131 mm. Arne B. Larson Collection, 1979.




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NMM 4866. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1890-1930. Rubber-stamp in black ink on paper label with cut corners, black ink geometric border, the month and year typed: REPAIRED AND ADJUSTED BY / N. W. REMLIN / DATE JUNE, 1946, / RED WING, - MINN. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, wide grain. Back: two-piece maple cut off-the-quarter, with narrow curl descending from center joint; maple dowels through back into top and bottom blocks on bass side of center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut, plain maple. Head and neck: maple with faint medium curl; inside of pegbox stained black. Varnish: thick, very dark red-brown; slightly shaded; uneven color; applied later by N. W. Remlin. Fingerboard: ebony. Nut: ebony. Pegs: three black-varnished ebony. Saddle: ebony; finished with same later varnish as body. Endpin: ebony with mother-of-pearl eye; edges with wide, shallow bevel. F-holes: slightly undercut; inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce. Burn marks visible on inside of ribs. Back length: 357 mm. Upper bout width: 165 mm. Center bout width: 107 mm. Lower bout width: 207 mm. Rib height: 29-30 mm. Stop length: 197 mm. Vibrating string length: 328 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 134 mm. Arne B. Larson Estate, 1989.




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NMM 10277. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1892-1910. Distributed by G. A. Pfretzschner [firm], Markneukirchen. Printed paper label with abstract banner border: STRADIVARIUS MODEL / Franz Liebig, Dresden. / MADE ONLY FOR / J. W. PEPPER & SON, PHILADA., PA. Faint pencil line on inside of top, from bass f-hole notch to bassbar. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce with fine grain, broadening toward the flanks; highly visible rays; small dowel through top into top block on treble side of center joint. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with broad curl descending from center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with narrow to medium curl, angled to right on bass side, angled to left on treble side. Head and neck: maple, narrow curl; floral and foliate decoration with stippled background, carved in relief on back and sides of pegbox; inside of pegbox stained black. Purfling: double; Gasparo da Salo-style interlaced inlay on upper and lower bouts of back. Varnish: dark red-brown. Fingerboard: ebony. Tailpiece: black-stained pearwood. Pegs: three rosewood. Saddle: ebony; finished with same varnish as body. Endpin: black-stained pearwood. F-holes: narrow, rounded upper and lower wings; notch corners rounded; inside edges stained black. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce. Back length: 359 mm. Upper bout width: 166 mm. Center bout width: 109 mm. Lower bout width: 205 mm. Rib height: 30-31 mm. Stop length: 197 mm. Vibrating string length: 330 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 132 mm. Gift of Joann V. Nicholls, Yankton, South Dakota, 2002.




NMM 10402. Violin made in Richard Weichold/August Paulus workshop, Dresden, Saxony, April 1893

NMM 10402. Violin made in Richard Weichold/August Paulus workshop, Dresden, Saxony, April 1893. Stelzner System. Serial no. 97. Board of Trustees, 2003.




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NMM 1139. Violin in style of hardingfele by Knud K. Hougen, Inwood, Iowa, 1895. Handwritten paper label: No 21 / Knud K. Hougen / Inwood November 20 / 1895. Hardingfele body and neck without sympathetic strings. Body: asymmetrical outline; square shoulders Top: one-piece, slab-cut, plain maple. Back: one-piece, slab-cut plain maple; two wooden dowels through back into top block, 15 and 42 mm from edge; one wooden dowel through back into bottom block, 10 mm from edge. Ribs: plain maple; one-piece lower rib. Head and neck: plain maple; head terminates in lion-dragon with pointed, bone teeth, protruding tongue, and gold-painted crown and mane. Arching: full arching rises abruptly at edge and flattens out at center. Purfling: none. Edging: not scooped; edges of top and back terminate in a point at the outer surface. Decoration: two floral inked borders on top and back; floral inked borders on pegbox; ink decoration is under the varnish. Varnish: red-brown with craquelure. Fingerboard: black-stained maple; wedge-shaped; no curvature; finish worn from use. Nut: bone. Tailpiece: ebony, adapted from commercial tailpiece. Tailgut: steel wire, looped around notches cut in sawed-off commercial violin tailpiece. Pegs: three ebony with with mother-of-pearl eyes; one black-stained mahogany. Saddle: bone. Endpin: ebony; rectangular shape. F-holes: elongated; wings terminate in points; no notches; inside edges of f-holes up to 12 mm higher than outside edges; inside edges overlap outside edges. Linings: none. Corner blocks: small, possibly maple. Top block: integral with neck; extends along inside of back. Bottom block: maple; rectangular. Bassbar: pine; extends the full length of top. Back brace: ridge carved from wood of back along center line. Back length: 356 mm. Upper bout width: 155 mm. Center bout width: 108 mm. Lower bout width: 197 mm. Rib height: 26-28 mm. Stop length: 189 mm. Vibrating string length: 318 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 125 mm. Arne B. Larson Collection, 1979.




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NMM 10281. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1896. Distributed by G. A. Pfretzschner [firm], Markneukirchen. Printed paper label, pasted over another label of similar paper and dimensions: Eduard Reichert / Dresden, fecit anno 1896. Pencil line on inside of top, from bass f-hole notch to bassbar. Pencil lines on inside of top, on bass side of bassbar at upper and lower ends, for alignment. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, fine grain; curved grain converges at center joint between upper f-hole eyes. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with broad curl descending from center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut maple: broad curl, angled to right on bass side, angled to left on treble side. Head and neck: maple, broad curl; neck stained brown; pegbox fluting begins immediately at bottom edge on each side of center ridge. Edging: scooped very close to edge, forming ridge. Purfling: wide dark strips. Varnish: dark red with craquelure. Fingerboard: ebony. Nut: ebony. Tailpiece: ebony; wide flare at top edge; large string holes. Pegs: four black-varnished rosewood. Saddle: ebony; finished with same varnish as body along top side. Endpin: black-varnished rosewood. F-holes: lower wings channeled. Linings: spruce; wide. Corner blocks: spruce. Some file marks on fingerboard. Back length: 358 mm. Upper bout width: 168 mm. Center bout width: 113 mm. Lower bout width: 209 mm. Rib height: 31-32 mm. Stop length: 197 mm. Vibrating string length: 330 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 135 mm. Board of Trustees, 2002.




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NMM 10286. Violin by C. M. Woolworth, Ottumwa, Iowa, 1898. Printed paper label, the year and serial number in black ink: NEW MODEL, HIGH GRADE VIOLIN / Made by C. M. WOOLWORTH, / OTTUMWA, IOWA, U. S. A. / 1898 No. 105. Compass indentation on inside of top at center. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce with medium grain, broadening toward the flanks; rectangular cleats inlaid along inside joint; small notch in top edge at neck position. Back: two-piece, semi-slab-cut maple with bird's-eye figure; decorative ebony diamond glued to outside joint, with tapered ebony strips of 28 and 29 mm on each end, glued over joint; rectangular cleats inlaid along inside joint. Ribs: semi-slab-cut maple with bird's-eye figure. Head and neck: plain maple; flat scroll ears; slight channel under fingerboard position; dowel holes at upper and lower ends under fingerboard position. Arching: high and full. Edging: sharply and deeply scooped inside edge, forming ridge, the lowest point just inside purfling. Purfling: wide strips; extends under fingerboard. Varnish: medium to light brown, with prominent craquelure. F-holes: curved upper and lower wings. Linings: spruce or pine; rounded edges. Corner blocks: spruce; small; rounded edges. Top block: integral with neck; small; rectangular with rounded edges. Bottom block: spruce; wide. Back length: 359 mm. Upper bout width: 171 mm. Center bout width: 109 mm. Lower bout width: 211 mm. Rib height: 28-29 mm. Stop length: 195 mm. Vibrating string length: 324 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 128 mm. Gift of Marie Newton, Ottumwa, Iowa, 1973.




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NMM 10077. Violin by C. M. Woolworth, Ottumwa, Iowa, 1898. Printed paper label: NEW MODEL, HIGH GRADE VIOLIN / Made by C. M. WOOLWORTH, / OTTUMWA, IOWA, U. S. A. / 1898  No. 106. Top: one-piece, quarter-cut pine, wide grain. Back: two-piece, slab-cut maple with bird's-eye figure; triangular button. Ribs: slab-cut maple with bird's-eye figure. Head and neck: plain maple; scroll volutes deeply scooped. Arching: high on top. Edging: sharply and deeply scooped. Varnish: light brown. Fingerboard: ebony; beveled end Tailpiece: ebony. Tailgut: multiple strands of copper wire. Pegs: four ebony, two with mother-of-pearl eyes. Saddle: ebony; triangular bottom end, the ribs cut away to fit. Endpin: ebony with mother-of-pearl eye. Linings: pine; underlap corner blocks. Corner blocks: pine. Top block: integral with neck. Back length: 358 mm. Upper bout width: 169 mm. Center bout width: 105 mm. Lower bout width: 210 mm. Rib height: 27-29 mm. Stop length: 197 mm. Vibrating string length: 325 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 128 mm. Arne B. Larson Estate, 1989.




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NMM 10087. Violin, Markneukirchen and/or Schönbach (Luby), ca. 1899. Distributed by G. A. Pfretzschner [firm], Markneukirchen. Printed paper label: Eduard Reichert / Dresden, fecit anno 1899. Stamped on banner carved in relief on back of pegbox: CASPAR DA SALO. Top: two-piece, quarter-cut spruce, medium grain. Back: two-piece, quarter-cut maple with broad curl, descending slightly from center joint. Ribs: quarter-cut maple with medium curl. Head and neck: maple, medium curl. Purfling: double; Gasparo da Salo-style interlaced inlay on upper and lower bouts of back. Varnish: orange-brown, with slight craquelure. Fingerboard: ebony. Nut: ebony. Tailpiece: varnished ebony; inlaid mother-of-pearl flowers (three) and leaves (two) etched with red-and-green-painted detail, with mother-of-pearl ring set in black mastic at the center of top flower, and three inlaid nickel-silver stems; inlaid mother-of-pearl eye at lower end; nickel-plated brass saddle does not fully extend to edges. Pegs: four ebony. Saddle: ebony. Endpin: ebony. F-holes: narrow, rounded upper and lower wings. Linings: spruce. Corner blocks: spruce. Back length: 357 mm. Upper bout width: 166 mm. Center bout width: 110 mm. Lower bout width: 205 mm. Rib height: 29-30 mm. Stop length: 193 mm. Vibrating string length: 325 mm. Original neck length (nut to ribs): 132 mm. Arne B. Larson Estate, 1989.

 


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