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Annotated Checklist of Keyed Bugles
in
The Joe R. and Joella F. Utley Collection of Brass Instruments

(in chronological order)


Makers

Graves & Co.
Klemm and Brother
Metzler & Co.
Pace, Charles
Pace, Charles, & Son
Saurle, Michael
Sax, Charles-Joseph
Shaw, George W.
Wagner, F.
Wright, Elbridge G.: 1854, 1858-1860


NMM 7312. Keyed bugle, "The Richard Willis," in E-flat, probably England, ca. 1820

NMM 7312. Keyed bugle, probably England, ca. 1820.  Joe R. and Joella F. Utley Collection, 1999.

Owner's signature engraved on NMM 7312

Engraved on silver shield at the bell: Richd. Willis

Two-piece (leadpipe, bell), single-loop copper body; German-silver leadpipe (ferrule), garland, and keys. Overlapping tab seam. Saxon rim, probably brass wire insert. German-silver receiver ferrule with vertical hatching between two deeply embossed lines. Flat, round keys with brown leather pads (replacement); German-silver tone-hole rims soldered to body; keys pivot in rectangular, German-silver saddles with slightly rounded corners on oval footplate; leaf springs.

At present nine keys in the following order (related to c-pitch): six original keys: b (open key, regulating screw with which the key can be rigidly closed, little finger/right hand); c-sharp1 (closed key, ring finger/right); d1 (closed, index finger/right); lower e-flat1 (closed, thumb/right); e1 (closed, thumb/left); and f1 (closed, index finger/left); three added keys: higher e-flat1 (closed, middle finger/right); a2 (closed, ring finger/left); and high b2 (closed, middle finger/left).

Accessories: Telescopic German-silver tuning shank with fine tuning device by Robb Stewart, Arcadia, California, 1998, stamped R. Stewart.

Sounding length: 934 mm, including tuning-shank: 1034 mm; internal diameter leadpipe at receiver: 11.5 mm, internal diameter minimum: 10.7 mm; bell diameter: 119 mm.

This keyed bugle might be one of the first instruments of its kind used in the U.S.A. It can be assumed that it formerly belonged to Richard Willis (ca. 1795-1830) and/or his son Richard S. Willis. Richard Willis Sr. was the first full-time teacher of music, bandmaster, and composer at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York. He was also the first keyed bugle soloist in America and is recorded as such already in 1816.

Lit.: Ralph T. Dudgeon. The Keyed Bugle (Metuchen, New Jersey: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1993), p. 53.


NMM 10787. Keyed bugle in C by Michael Saurle, Munich, ca. 1825

NMM 10787. Keyed bugle in C by Michael Saurle, Munich, ca. 1825.  Joe R. and Joella F. Utley Collection, 1999. Maker's signature engraved on NMM 10787

Engraved in longhand script with zigzag-line filling on garland to be read from the rim: Michael Saurle [in München (faded)]

Two-piece (main tubing, bell), single-loop brass body. Overlapping tab seam (width of tabs 5-6 mm; at the flaring part, ca. 5 mm apart; at the conical part, ca. 35 mm apart). Nürnberg rim, wire with impressed hatching. Receiver ferrule with ring in cable-stick pattern and four groups of engraved lines. No ferrule between the tube segments, which overlap at the joint. Flat, round key-heads with some remains of old (maybe original) beige leather pads; brass tone-hole rims soldered to body; keys pivot in tear-shaped brass saddles; brass leaf springs riveted to key shanks.

Six keys in the following order (related to c-pitch): b/f-sharp1 (open key, regulating screw with which the key can be rigidly closed, little finger/right hand); c-sharp1/g-sharp1 (closed key, ring finger/right); d1/a1 (closed key, index finger/right); e-flat1/b-flat1 (closed key, thumb/right); e1 (closed key, thumb/left); f1 (closed key, index finger/left). Key functions engraved in German nomenclature on each key for convenience of the player. Starting with the key closest to the bell, these read: H.Fis. (B and F-sharp), Cis Gis (C-sharp and G-sharp), D.A., B.Es. (B-flat and E-flat), E. and F.

Engraved keys and regulating screw on NMM 10787

Right:  Engraved keys and regulating screw
(click on image at right to see a larger image)

Sounding length: 1201 mm; internal diameter, leadpipe at receiver: 12.1 mm; internal diameter, minimum (at ca. 32 mm): 11.3 mm; bell diameter: 155 mm.

Keyed bugles patterned after the English model were popular in Bavarian bands in the 1820s and '30s, as one can conclude from written accounts and sales advertisements, as well as the many surviving instruments. From Saurle's workshop alone at least ten keyed bugles, all with six keys, are known. The tear-shaped key saddles of the present bugle indicate that it must have been built in the middle of Saurle’s career. Earlier keyed bugles from his workshop feature rectangular brass saddles, while later ones have pillar mounting. The keyed bugle was Saurle's starting point for his invention of a chromatisches Flügelhorn, which he considered to be an improved keyed bugle with valves instead of keys. Like the keyed bugle, in which the keys are arranged in successive semitones, Saurle's early valve brasses show an arrangement in which the valves progress by half step, having the semitone at the first valve.

Lit.:  Sabine K. Klaus. "Found in the Sunny South:  A Trumpet by Johann Carl Kodisch, Imperial City of Nürnberg, After 1681," National Music Museum Newsletter 32, No. 1 (February 2005), pp. 4-5.


NMM 6895. Keyed bugle in E-flat, attributed to Graves & Co.,
Winchester, New Hampshire, late 1830s

NMM 6895. Keyed bugle attributed to Graves & Co., Winchester, New Hampshire, ca. 1835.  Joe R. and Joella F. Utley Collection, 1999.

Unsigned, attributed to Graves & Co.

One-piece, single-loop copper body; German-silver receiver ferrule and garland; brass keys. Overlapping tab seam. Saxon rim, iron wire insert. Receiver ferrule with double ring. Round, spoon-shaped key heads with stuffed, brown leather pads (presumably original); brass tone-hole rims soldered to body; keys pivot in ornamented brass saddles; leaf springs.

Nine keys in the following order (related to c-pitch): b (open key, no regulating screw, little finger/right hand); c-sharp1 (closed key, ring finger/right); d1 (closed key, index finger/right); lower e-flat1 (closed key, thumb/right); higher e-flat1 (closed key, middle finger/right); e1 (closed key, thumb/left); f1 (closed key, index finger/left); a2 (closed, ring finger/left); b-flat2 (closed key, middle finger/left).

Accessories: Telescopic brass tuning shank with regulating screw; silver mouthpiece stamped 15 / F BESSON / PARIS; wooden case with brass fittings.

Sounding length: 895 mm, including tuning shank: 1013 mm (maximum extension); internal diameter leadpipe at receiver: 10.4 mm; bell diameter: 107 mm.

The attribution of this keyed bugle to Graves & Co. is based on characteristic decorative features like the shape of the finger hook and the saddles. Particularly striking similarities can be observed with a signed keyed bugle in E-flat by Graves & Co. at the National Music Museum (NMM 1339). Other examples are found at the Yale University Collection of Musical Instruments (New Haven, Connecticut), the Smithsonian Institution (Washington, D.C.), and the Henry Ford Museum (Dearborn, Michigan).


NMM 6869. Keyed bugle in C, Saxony, ca. 1840
Sold by Metzler & Co., London

NMM 6869. Keyed bugle by Metzler & Co., London, ca. 1840.  Joe R. and Joella F. Utley Collection, 1999.

Garland engraving on keyed bugle NMM 6869

Engraved on garland: Metzler & Co" / London.

Three-piece:  telescopic tuning slide (slide now lost), first bow, bell, single-loop copper body; brass garland and leadpipe (ferrule); German-silver keys. Overlapping tab seam. Saxon rim, iron wire insert. Diagonally hatched ferrules. Flat, round key heads with white leather pads (presumably replaced); brass tone-hole rims soldered to body; keys pivot in rectangular brass saddles; leaf springs.

Six keys in the following order (related to c-pitch): b (open key, regulating screw with which the key can be rigidly closed, little finger/right hand); c-sharp1 (closed key, ring finger/right); d1 (closed key, index finger/right); e-flat1 (closed key, thumb/right); e1 (closed key, thumb/left); f1 (closed key, index or middle finger/left).

Sounding length: 1220 mm; internal diameter leadpipe at receiver: 12.2 mm; internal diameter minimum (at 7 mm): 11.9 mm; bell diameter: 136 mm.

The firm's name, Metzler & Co., is first recorded in 1833. In 1839 the firm advertised bugles among other wind instruments and drums. Features such as the body joint and the tuning-slide design indicate that this instrument was a Saxon import and merely sold by Metzler in London.

Lit.:  Sotheby's auction catalogue, Important Musical Instruments, New York, June 29, 1984, Various, no. 2.


NMM 10002. Keyed bugle in B-flat by Charles-Joseph Sax, Brussels, ca. 1840

NMM 10002. Keyed bugle by Charles-Joseph Sax, Brussels, ca. 1840.  André P. Larson Acquisitions Fund and other funds given in memory of Joe R. Utley (1935-2001).

Engraved on bell: C,, Sax, à Bruxelles. Inlay in case within depictions of keyed bugle: L. Honbert. / A Menin. Dating in mastic on rectangular holly wood inlay below bugle depiction: 1842.

Two-piece brass body; brass leadpipe (ferrule) and keys. Overlapping tab seam (barely visible). Small French rim with brass wire inlay. Receiver with ratchet tuning slide, slide ferrule with two engraved lines and stabilizing end ring, ferrule formed like a ring. Round, spoon-shaped key heads with white leather pads (replacement); brass tone-hole rims soldered to body; keys pivot on screws in tube between two brass posts on brass mounts; iron leaf springs guided in grooves on mounts.

Seven keys in the following order (related to c-pitch): b (open key, little finger/right hand); c-sharp1 (closed key, ring finger/right); d1 (closed key, index finger/right); lower e-flat1 (closed key, index finger/right); higher e-flat1 (closed key, thumb/right); e1 (closed key, thumb/left); a2 (closed key, index finger/left).

Accessories: Telescopic tuning slide to go into the leadpipe, which is equipped with a ratchet; funnel-shaped brass mouthpiece with flat rim; wooden case in the shape of the instrument with red cloth interior; purpleheart veneer, and inlays of holly wood in stripes, tendrils, and a musical lyre (on the bell end).

Sounding length: 1370 mm (including inserted tuning slide); internal diameter at receiver: 10.4 mm; internal diameter minimum at (ca. 40 mm): 8.9 mm; bell diameter: 171 mm.

One of the few preserved Belgian keyed bugles by the father of the inventor of the saxophone. Charles-Joseph Sax was a trained cabinet-maker and self-taught wind instrument maker. It is likely that he built both the instrument and the case. The latter bears the name of the first owner who lived in the small Belgium town of Menin, thirty miles south of Bruges.

Lit.:  "In Memoriam," America's Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter 28, No. 2 (May 2001), p. 8.

André P. Larson, Beethoven & Berlioz, Paris & Vienna: Musical Treasures from the Age of Revolution & Romance 1789-1848, with essay by John Koster, exhibition catalog, Washington Pavilion, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, September 12-November 2, 2003 (Vermillion: National Music Museum 2003), pp. 5 and 55.


NMM 10788. Keyed bugle in C by F. Wagner, probably Saxony, ca. 1840

NMM 10788.  Keyed bugle in C by F. Wagner, probably Saxony, ca. 1840 NMM 10788.  Keyed bugle in C by F. Wagner, probably Saxony, ca. 1840

Engraved on oval, German-silver plaque at bell, to be read from the rim:  F. Wagner.

Two-piece (main tubing, bell), single-loop brass body; German-silver garland. Overlapping tab seam (width of tabs ca. 3 mm at a distance of ca. 3 mm). Saxon rim with iron wire insert. Receiver ferrule with two engraved lines; narrow, disk-like ferrule with vertical hatching between the two tube segments.

Flat, round key heads with some remains of old (maybe original) brown leather pads; brass tone-hole rims soldered to body; keys pivot in square brass saddles; brass leaf springs riveted to the key shanks.

Seven keys in the following order (related to c-tuning): b (open key, regulating screw with which the key can be rigidly closed, little finger/right hand); c-sharp1 (closed key, ring finger/right); d1 (closed key, index finger/right); lower e-flat1 (closed key, thumb/right); higher e-flat1 (closed key, middle finger/right); e1 (closed key, thumb/left); f1 (closed key, index finger/left).

Accessories: brass tuning bit with two ears.

Sounding length: 1170 mm, including tuning bit: 1177 mm; internal diameter, tuning bit at receiver: 11.6 mm, internal diameter, tuning bit minimum (at ca. 35): 11.1 mm; bell diameter: 164 mm.

This seven-key bugle is the only known instrument by F. Wagner.  From stylistic details, such as acorns and oak and maple leaves engraved on the garland, a Saxon provenance can be assumed.

Lit.:  Sabine K. Klaus. "Found in the Sunny South:  A Trumpet by Johann Carl Kodisch, Imperial City of Nürnberg, After 1681," National Music Museum Newsletter 32, No. 1 (February 2005), pp. 4-5.


NMM 7172. Keyed bugle in C by Charles Pace, London, 1841

Keyed bugle in C By Charles Pace, London, 1841 Keyed bugle in C By Charles Pace, London, 1841

Engraved on silver plaque on bell: IMPROVED & MADE BY / Chas. Pace / Musical Instrument Maker. / to her Majesty's Guards. / 49, King Street, Westminster.; engraved directly on bell: 1841 [above silver plaque] and Joseph Dore. / Swineford. [below silver plaque].

One-piece, single-loop copper body with telescopic brass tuning slide; brass leadpipe (ferrule) and keys. Overlapping tab seam (width of tabs ca. 4 mm at a distance of ca. 21 mm). Garland with plain upper margin, embossed with roses (symbolizing England), clover (symbolizing Ireland), and thistle (symbolizing Scottland). Saxon rim with iron wire insert. Receiver ferrule with slide-adjusting screw on ring with four engraved lines. Flat round key heads with brown leather pads (replaced); brass tone-hole rims soldered to body; keys pivot on screws in tube between two brass posts; brass leaf springs guided in groove of post-extension.

Eight keys in the following order (related to c-pitch): b (open key, regulating screw with which the key can be rigidly closed, little finger/right hand); c-sharp1 (closed, ring finger/right); d1 (closed, index finger/right); lower e-flat1 (closed, thumb/right); higher e-flat1 (closed, index finger/left); e1 (closed, thumb/left); f1 (closed, index finger/left); a2 (closed, little finger/left).

Accessories: Telescopic brass tuning slide to go into the leadpipe, which is equipped with adjustment screw.

Sounding length: 1160 mm (including inserted tuning slide); internal diameter receiver tuning slide: 12.7 mm; bell diameter: 163 mm.

The engraved date and name on this keyed bugle presumably refers to its first owner, butcher Joseph Thompson Dore (1824-1912) of Swineford, and the year he received it.


NMM 7070. Keyed bugle in high B-flat by George W. Shaw,
Thompson, Connecticut, ca. 1845-1850

NMM 7070.  Keyed bugle in high C by George W. Shaw, Thompson, Connecticut, ca. 1845-1850. NMM 7070.  Signature on Shaw keyed bugle.

Engraved on eliptical German-silver plaque: Shaw's. Patent. / August 4th…1845.

Single-piece, single-loop tortoise-shell body; German-silver receiver ferrule and keys. Ferrule with one engraved line. Cup-shaped key heads with white stuffed pads (old, partly replaced); tortoise-shell tone-hole-rims welded to body; channel-shaped shanks over block mounts; leaf springs.

Nine keys in the following order (related to c-pitch): b1 (open, regulating screw with which the key can be rigidly closed); c-sharp2 (closed key; ring finger/right); d2 (closed key, index finger/right); lower e-flat2 (closed key, thumb/right), higher e-flat2 (closed key, middle finger/right); e2 (closed key, thumb/left); f2 (closed key, index finger/left); f-sharp2 (closed key, middle finger/left); a2 (closed key, ring or little finger/left).

Accessories: German-silver mouthpiece; wooden case stained black with black velvet interior, ornate brass fitting, and two keys.

Sounding length:  624 mm; internal diameter at receiver: 8.5 mm; internal diameter minimum at 23 mm: 7.8 mm; bell diameter: 80 mm.

George W. Shaw of Thompson, Connecticut, was awarded a patent for the manufacture of tortoise-shell keyed bugles in August 1845. According to the patent description, this material permits the manufacture of an extremely light-weight instrument without compromising the tone quality of the bugle. Additionally, Shaw claims that "from the elasticity of the material, it is not subject to deterioration of tone from indentations. The instrument is made in 5 parts, which are welded together . . ." Shaw exhibited his tortoise-shell bugles in Philadelphia (1846 and 1848) and in New York (1853).

Lit.: Robert Eliason. Keyed Bugles in the United States (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1972), pp. 20-22.

Margaret Downie Banks, "Brass Instruments from the Utley Collection Fill the Museum's Horn of Plenty this Harvest Season - Tortoise-Shell is Key Element in Rare Bugle," America's Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. 26, No. 4 (November 1999), p. 7.


NMM 7059. Keyed bugle in E-flat by Elbridge G. Wright, Boston, 1854

NMM 7059. Keyed bugle by Elbridge G. Wright, Boston, 1854.  Joe R. and Joella F. Utley Collection, 1999.

Engraved on bell, surrounded by engravings with eagle on top and flower motifs at the sides: Presented / TO D. Chase, BY / THE / Inhabitants of Clinton, / AND THE [stamped] / Clinton Brass Band. / Jany,, 1854. Stamped on bell within a ribbon: MADE BY E.G. WRIGHT. BOSTON.

One-piece, single-loop silver body. Overlapping tab seam. Garland highly decorated with engraved oak leaves with acorns and flower motifs. Saxon rim, probably brass wire insert. Leadpipe with engraved leaves, flowers, and double ring at receiver end. Round, spoon-shaped key heads with stuffed, brown leather pads; silver tone-hole rims soldered to body; tone-hole borders without decoration; keys pivot on screw in tube between two pillars on heart-shaped footplate; leaf springs guided in channel at footplate.

Eleven keys in the following order (related to c-pitch): b (open key, no regulating screw, little finger/right hand); c-sharp1 (closed key, ring finger/right); d1 (closed key, index/right); lower e-flat1 (closed key, thumb/right); higher e-flat1 (closed key, middle finger/right); e1 (closed key, thumb/left); f1 (closed key, index finger/left); a2 (closed key, middle finger/left); b-flat2 (closed key, ring finger/left); b2 (closed key, index finger/left); c3 (closed key, ring finger/left).

Accessories: Silver-plated telescopic tuning shank; silver mouthpiece.

Sounding length: 915 mm, including tuning shank: 989 mm.; internal diameter leadpipe at receiver: 10.8 mm, internal diameter minimum (at 36 mm): 9.8 mm; bell diameter: 114 mm.

The Wright keyed bugles NMM 7059 and NMM 7060 were obviously formed over the same mandrel, since they have exactly the same bell shape. Also, the key-hole size and positions and other crucial measurements are virtually identical. David Chase (ca. 1813-1901) was a member of the Fiske Band in Worcester, Massachusetts, and enlisted in the 25th Massachusetts Regiment, under the leadership of Patrick Gilmore, in 1861.


NMM 7060. Keyed bugle in E-flat by Elbridge G. Wright, Boston, ca. 1858-1860

NMM 7060. Keyed bugle by Elbridge G. Wright, Boston, ca. 1850.  Joe R. and Joella F. Utley Collection, 1999.

Engraved on applied cartouche at bell: Thos B. Harris / Xenia, Ohio.  Engraved underneath cartouche (visible by x-ray): J. W. [?] Davis. Engraved on bell: Made by / E. G. WRIGHT, / FOR / Allen & Co. / Boston. Both Harris and Wright inscriptions surrounded by extensive, engraved floral tendrils.

One-piece, single-loop silver body. Overlapping tab seam. Garland engraved with flower motifs and tendrils. Saxon rim, probably brass wire insert. Leadpipe with engraved leaves, flowers, and double ring at receiver end. Round, cup-shaped key heads with pointed center, stuffed white leather pads; silver tone-hole rims soldered to body; tone-hole borders with engraved leaf pattern; keys pivot on screw in tube between two pillars on heart-shaped footplate; leaf springs guided in channel at footplate.

Eleven keys in the following order (related to c-pitch): b (open key, no regulating screw, little finger/right hand); c-sharp1 (closed key, ring finger/right); d1 (closed key, index finger/right); lower e-flat1 (closed, thumb/right); higher e-flat1 (closed key, middle finger/right); e1 (closed key, thumb/left); f1 (closed key, index finger/left); a2 (closed key, middle finger/left); b-flat2 (closed key, ring finger or little finger/left); b2 (closed key, index finger/left); c3 (closed key, ring finger/left).

Accessories: Telescopic silver tuning shank; silver mouthpiece with gold-plating; fruitwood case in the shape of the instrument with German-silver mounts and oval badge, engraved T. B. HARRIS / XENIA. / OHIO.

Sounding length: 915 mm, including tuning shank: 989 mm.; internal diameter leadpipe at receiver: 10.8 mm, internal diameter minimum (at 39 mm): 10.2 mm; bell diameter: 114 mm.

This keyed bugle and the following one are two of at least fifteen surviving presentation instruments by E. G. Wright, designed to be given to accomplished players. Such instruments are heavily decorated with engravings and other decorative features such as elaborate finger hooks and the like.

Lit.:  Robert Garofalo and Mark Elrod. A Pictorial History of Civil War Era Musical Instruments & Military Bands (Charleston, West Virginia: Pictorial Histories Publishing Company, 1985), p. 1.

Sabine K. Klaus, "Presentation Keyed Bugle in E-flat by E. G. Wright," International Trumpet Guild Journal 33, No. 4 (June 2009): 63.

Sabine K. Klaus, "Unraveling the Secrets of a Silver Keyed Bugle by E. G. Wright," NMM Website, March 2010.


NMM 6871. Keyed bugle in B-flat and C by Klemm and Brother,
Saxony, 1830s or 1840s

NMM 6871. Keyed bugle by Klemm and Brother, Philadelphia, mid-19th century.  Joe R. and Joella F. Utley Collection, 1999. Close-up of signature on Klemm and Brother keyed bugle.

Engraved on garland: Klemm and Brother / in Philadelphia.

Three-piece, single-loop copper body; brass leadpipe (ferrule), garland, and keys. Overlapping tab seam. Saxon rim, iron wire insert. Ferrules with characteristic Saxon decoration; receiver ferrule with wing screw. Flat, round key heads with brown leather pads (replaced); brass tone-hole rims engraved with single line, soldered to body; keys pivot in brass saddles with sloping and rounded tops respectively; leaf springs.

Eight keys in the following order (related to c-pitch): b (open key, regulating screw with which the key can be rigidly closed, little finger/right hand); c-sharp1 (closed key, ring finger/right); d1 (closed key, index finger/right); lower e-flat1 (closed key, thumb/right); higher e-flat1 (closed key, index finger/right); e1 (closed key, thumb/left); f1 (closed key, index finger/left); a1 (closed key, middle finger/left).

Accessories: Brass tuning shank with "ears," brass mouthpiece.

Sounding length: 1241 mm, maximum length with tuning shank extended: ca. 1350 mm; internal diameter leadpipe at receiver: 12.4 mm, internal diameter minimum (at 15 mm): 12 mm; bell diameter: 145 mm.

Klemm and Brother was established in Philadelphia in 1819, simultaneously maintaining a base in Germany under the name G. & A. Klemm. The wholesale firm imported instruments from small anonymous workshops in Neukirchen (today Markneukirchen), Saxony. This keyed bugle shows several characteristics of the Markneukirchen style, such as the body joint with ferrule, a "flamingo head" fourth key, and a typical, box-shaped saddle with long ears bridging the third key, confirming that it was made in Saxony, not in Philadelphia.

Lit.:  Sotheby's Auction Catalogue, Important Musical Instruments, New York, January 18, 1984, Various, no. 2.


NMM 6872. Keyed bugle in C, probably England, 1830s

NMM 6872. Keyed bugle, probably England, mid-19th century.  Joe R. and Joella F. Utley Collection, 1999.

Unsigned, maker not known.

One-piece, single-loop copper body; brass leadpipe (ferrule), garland, and keys. Overlapping tab seam with gusset. Saxon rim, iron wire insert. Receiver ferrule engraved with six lines in groups of four and two; diagonally hatched end ring. Flat, round key heads with beige leather pads; brass tone-hole rims soldered to body; keys pivot in ornamented brass saddles; leaf springs.

Seven keys in the following order (related to c-pitch): b (open key, regulating screw with which the key can be rigidly closed, little finger/right hand); c-sharp1 (closed key, ring finger/right); d1 (closed key, index finger/right); lower e-flat1 (closed key, thumb/right); higher e-flat1 (closed key, middle/right); e1 (closed key, thumb/left); f1 (closed key, index finger/left).

Sounding length: 1205 mm; internal diameter leadpipe at receiver: 12.6 mm, internal diameter minimum (at 60 mm): 11.5 mm; bell diameter: 148 mm.

The shape of the keys of this instrument is reminiscent of the Charles Pace keyed bugle (NMM 6870). Therefore, it is presumably of English origin.

Lit.: Sotheby's auction catalogue, Important Musical Instruments, New York, January 18, 1984, Various, no. 2.


NMM 6870. Keyed bugle in E-flat by Charles Pace & Son, London, ca. 1860

NMM 6870. Keyed bugle by Charles Pace & Son, London, ca. 1860.  Joe R. and Joella F. Utley Collection, 1999. Signature in cartouche on NMM 6870. Charles Pace & Son keyed bugle

Embossed German-silver plate with raised letters soldered to bell : MANUFACTURED BY / [English Royal coat of arms] / CHARLES PACE / AND SON / 8 ST JOHN ST WESTMINSTER

One-piece, single-loop copper body; brass leadpipe (ferrule) and keys. Overlapping tab seam. Variant of Dresden rim without garland. Ferrules diagonally hatched. Flat, round key heads with white leather pads (replaced); brass tone-hole rims soldered to body; keys pivot on screw in tube between two rectangular posts; leaf springs guided in groove of post-extension.

Seven keys in the following order (related to c-pitch): b (open key, regulating screw with which the key can be rigidly closed, little finger/right hand); c-sharp1 (closed key, ring finger/right); d1 (closed key, index finger/right); e-flat1 (closed key, thumb/right); lower e1 (closed key, index finger/left); higher e1 (closed key, thumb/left); f1 (closed key, middle finger/left).

Accessories: Coiled copper crook for c, brass mouthpiece.

Sounding length: 1002 mm, including c-crook: 1222 mm; internal diameter leadpipe at receiver: 11.8 mm, internal diameter minimum (at 43 mm): 10.5 mm; bell diameter: 114 mm.

The dating of the instrument is based on the fact that the firm, Charles Pace & Son, was located at 8 St. Johns, Westminster, from 1853 to 1883.


NMM 7111. Keyed bugle in B-flat, presumably Saxony, mid-19th century

NMM 7111. Keyed bugle, probably U.S.A., second half 19th century.  Joe R. and Joella F. Utley Collection, 1999.

Unsigned, maker not known.

Four-piece, single-loop copper body; horizontal tuning slide; brass leadpipe (ferrule), tuning slide, and garland; German-silver keys and ferrules. Overlapping tab seam. Saxon rim, iron wire insert. Receiver ferrule engraved with five lines in three groups; vertically hatched end ring. Flat, round key heads with brown leather pads (replacements); two-part brass tone-hole rims soldered to body; keys pivot on screw in tube between two German-silver posts; leaf springs guided in groove of post-extension.

Seven keys in the following order (related to c-pitch): b (open key, no regulating screw, little finger/right hand); c-sharp1 (closed key, ring finger/right); d1 (closed key, index finger/right); lower e-flat1 (closed key, middle finger/right); higher e-flat1 (closed key, index finger/right); e1 (closed key, thumb/left); f1 (closed key, index finger/left).

Accessories: Two unusual brass tuning bits with pirouette-like rings.

Sounding length: 1382 mm (including tuning bits); internal diameter leadpipe at receiver: 12.3 mm, internal diameter minimum (at 14 mm): 11.8 mm; bell diameter: 145 mm.

This keyed bugle cannot be attributed to any maker at present. Since it shows peculiar features, like the tuning slide at right angle to the bell, attribution could become possible if an instrument with similar features would come to light. Also, this keyed bugle differs from the normal fingering system in using the middle finger of the right hand to operate the lower e-flat key, instead of the thumb.

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