National Music Museum Logo   National Music Museum  
Home  Collections
Virtual Tour
Calendar Gift Shop FAQ Site Index Maker Index

 

Annotated Checklist of
Trumpets, Flugelhorns, and Saxhorns
with Double-Piston Valves in
The Joe R. and Joella F. Utley Collection of Brass Instruments

(in chronological order)


Makers

Allen, Joseph Lathrop
Barth, Andreas
Courtois, Antoine Denis
Fiske, Isaac
Gentner, Alois
Kaiser, Franz G.
Leicher, Dominicus


NMM 7058.  Trumpet in B-flat by Andreas Barth, Munich, ca. 1837

NMM 7058.  Trumpet in B-flat by Andreas Barth, Munich, ca. 1837

Right Side


NMM 7058.  Trumpet in B-flat by Andreas Barth, Munich, ca. 1837

Left Side


Garland of trumpet in B-flat by Andreas Barth, Munich, ca. 1837 Crown stamp on trumpet in B-flat by Andreas Barth, Munich, ca. 1837
 

Signature engraved on garland: A. Barth in München

 

Crown stamped on receiver ferrule

Four-piece, single-loop brass body without tuning slide. Overlapping tab seam (width of tabs 5 mm and 5 mm apart). Undecorated garland; variation of Nürnberg rim consisting of a double layer with two twisted wires on top of a brass stripe. Ferrules with engraved lines in groups of three and four (two and two) surrounding an impressed line.

Two double-piston valves in reversed order lower the pitch a semitone (first valve) and a whole tone (second valve). Long levers and return springs pivot in brass saddle; square valve channel; cap-shaped piston ends. First valve internal, second valve external slide tubing. Windway: first valve, second valve.

Accessories: Presumably original brass mouthpiece.

Sounding length: 1226 mm; internal diameter receiver: 11.8 mm; internal diameter receiver minimum (at 38 mm): 9.8 mm; bore diameter: 10.4 mm (inner first valve slide); bell diameter: 115 mm.

This trumpet possesses the typical Bavarian version of double-piston valves with long levers. It was built about 1837, based on valve design details, in particular the saddle mounting of the long levers and return springs. A trumpet by Andreas Barth (ca. 1797-1868) from 1835 has a still earlier version of double-piston valves, but a pupil, Dominicus Leicher, used the saddle design in an instrument dated 1837.

The crown, stamped on the receiver ferrule, is very likely an indication that this trumpet formerly belonged to the Royal Bavarian Court Orchestra (Königlich Bayerisches Hoforchester) in Munich. Similar two-valve trumpets—several of them by Barth—were auctioned by the Bavarian Court later in the nineteenth century, after such instruments were no longer fashionable.

Lit.:  Joe R. Utley and Sabine K. Klaus, "The 'Catholic Fingering'—First Valve Semitone: Reversed Valve Order in Brass Instruments and Related Valve Constructions," Historic Brass Society Journal, 15 (2003), pp. 73-161, especially p. 75.

Sabine K. Klaus, Trumpet in B-flat by Andreas Barth," in "Historical Instrument Window," Edward H. Tarr, editor, International Trumpet Guild Journal, Vol. 29, No. 4 (June 2005), p. 63.


NMM 7189. Trumpet in G by Dominicus Leicher, Augsburg, ca. 1840

NMM 7189.  Trumpet by Dominicus Leicher, Augsburg, ca. 1840 NMM 7189.  Trumpet by Dominicus Leicher, Augsburg, ca. 1840
 

Top

 

Bottom

Garland of trumpet in G by Dominicus Leicher, Augsburg, ca. 1840

Engraved on garland: Dominicus Leicher [lyre] in Augsburg

Five-piece, double-loop brass body with tuning slide on first bow. Overlapping tab seam, tabs sloping towards the bell rim (ca. 3 mm wide and 3 mm apart). Undecorated garland; Saxon rim with iron wire insert. Ferrules with one to four engraved lines.

Three double-piston valves in reverse order lower the pitch a semitone (first valve), a whole tone (second valve), and a minor third (third valve). Clock-spring mechanism without tension regulating device; round valve channel; cap-shaped piston ends. Internal slide tubing. Windway: first, second, third valve.

Accessories: Brass mouthpiece (not original).

Sounding length: 1562 mm; internal diameter receiver: 11.7 mm; internal diameter receiver minimum (at 26 mm): 11 mm; bore diameter: 11.1 mm (inner valve slides); bell diameter: 124 mm.

This is one of the very few surviving instruments by Dominicus Leicher (1817-1848), built in a relatively short time of some ten years in Augsburg before his untimely death. Leicher was an apprentice with Andreas Barth in Munich. The reversed valve order was common in Bavaria until the early twentieth century, and is occasionally called "Catholic fingering," referring to the Catholic regions in which it was used.

Lit.:  Joe R. Utley and Sabine K. Klaus, "The 'Catholic Fingering'—First Valve Semitone: Reversed Valve Order in Brass Instruments and Related Valve Constructions," Historic Brass Society Journal, 15 (2003), p. 76.


NMM 7077. Trumpet in G, Austria or Germany, ca. 1840

NMM 7077.  Trumpet in G, Austria or Germany, ca. 1840

Unsigned. Main tuning slide engraved G.

Six-piece, double-loop brass body with tuning slide on second bow. Overlapping tab seam, tabs V-shaped (4 mm wide and 4 mm apart). Undecorated garland; Saxon rim with iron wire insert. German-silver and brass ferrules with engraved and impressed lines in groups of two and three, and embossed ferrules with hatching surrounded by bead pattern.

Two double-piston valves lower the pitch a whole tone (first valve) and a semitone (second valve). Clock-spring mechanism without tension regulating device; round valve channel; tapered piston ends. First valve external, and second valve internal slide tubing. Windway: first valve, second valve.

Accessories: Brass mouthpiece; three brass crooks engraved E. b., D. and C. and one coupler engraved B. Conifer case with cherry wood veneer, edges of lid with inlaid stripe of black-stained wood, brass fittings, and green cloth interior. There is a spare slot in the case for another smaller crook (now lost).

Sounding length: 1535 mm (G), 1970 mm (E-flat), 2122 mm (D), 2388 mm (C), 2716 mm (C and B-flat coupler); internal diameter receiver: 11.9 mm; internal diameter receiver minimum (at 35 mm): 11.2 mm; bore diameter: 11.5 mm (inner second valve slide); internal diameter receiver crooks: 11.9 mm; internal diameter receiver coupler: 12.0 mm; bell diameter: 122 mm.

Leopold Uhlmann (1806-1878) patented this valve construction, the so-called Vienna Valve, in Vienna in 1830. The clock-spring return mechanism and tapered piston ends are characteristic of Uhlmann’s design.

The engraving on the crooks, particularly the use of B. for B-flat, clearly points to the German-speaking area. The case resembles the Austrian and South-German Biedermeier style. The trumpet was therefore made in the Austro-Hungarian Empire or in neighboring German-speaking countries.

Lit.: Sabine K. Klaus, with contributions from Robert Pyle, "Measuring Sound:  BIAS Aids Understanding of Brass Instruments," NMM Newsletter 37, No. 3 (December 2010).


NMM 7061. Trumpet in B-flat by J. Lathrop Allen, Norwich, Connecticut, ca. 1850

NMM 7061.  Trumpet in B-flat by J. Lathrop Allen, Norwich, Connecticut, ca. 1850

Right Side


NMM 7061.   Trumpet in B-flat by J. Lathrop Allen, Norwich, Connecticut, ca. 1850

Left Side


Garland of trumpet in B-flat by J. Lathrop Allen, Norwich, Connecticut, ca. 1850

Engraved on garland: J Lathrop Allen. Norwich Ct.

Six-piece, double-loop brass body with tuning slide on second bow. Overlapping tab seam, tabs sloping towards the leadpipe (3 mm wide and 3 mm apart). Undecorated garland; Saxon rim with iron wire insert. Tuning slide ferrules with one engraved line, all other ferrules without decoration.

Three double-piston valves in normal order. Short levers with flat-spring; valve channel covered by broad brass sheet; cap-shaped piston ends connected to pairs. External slide tubing. Windway: first, second, third valve.

Accessories: German-silver mouthpiece, stamped DITZEL (not original).

Sounding length: 1252 mm; internal diameter receiver: 8.9 mm; internal diameter receiver minimum (at 80 mm): 7.9 mm; bore diameter: 8.2 mm; bell diameter: 108 mm.

This double-piston valve type with short levers and flat-spring is derived from a model that originated in Saxony and was further developed in Mainz between 1830 and 1840, called the Old Mainz Model. Several American makers built instruments with this valve design as well (both in normal and reversed valve order); e.g., E. G. Wright and Wright & Baldwin in Boston and Graves & Co. in Winchester, New Hampshire.


NMM 7062. Soprano Saxhorn in E-flat by Isaac Fiske, Worcester, Massachusetts, ca. 1850

NMM 7062.  Soprano saxhorn in E-flat by Isaac Fiske, Worcester, Massachusetts, ca. 1850 Signature engraved on soprano saxhorn in E-flat by Isaac Fiske, Worcester, Massachusetts, ca. 1850

Engraved on silver plaque at bell:  Isaac Fiske / Maker / Worcester, Mass.

Three-piece, single-loop brass body with upright bell and detachable leadpipe, tuning slide with screw adjustment at leadpipe. Overlapping tab seam continuing at the bell bow (tabs 6 mm wide and 6 mm apart). Undecorated garland; Dresden rim. Ferrules without decoration.

Three double-piston valves in reversed order lower the pitch a semitone (first valve), a whole tone (second valve), and a minor third (third valve). Touchpieces, piston-operated with spring in tube; valve channel covered by broad brass sheet; piston ends covered by one common oblong capping. External slide tubing. Windway: first, second, third valve.

Accessories: Brass mouthpiece (probably original); telescopic tuning slide; trapezoid conifer case with sliding lid.

Sounding length: 958 mm (including tuning slide); internal diameter receiver leadpipe: 10.2 mm; bore diameter: 10.8 mm; internal diameter receiver tuning slide: 10.0 mm; internal diameter tuning slide minimum (at 31 mm): 9.6 mm; bell diameter: 126 mm.

Robert Eliason assumes that this valve construction with touchpieces manipulated by coil springs in a tube might be Isaac Fiske’s (1820-1894) newly improved valve design, which he exhibited at the Worcester County Mechanic’s Association in 1849. Although new in the U.S., similar systems were used in Europe since the 1830s. This design was particularly popular in Belgium, and is often referred to as Système belge.

Lit.:  Robert E. Eliason. Early American Brass Makers (Nashville: The Brass Press, 1981), p. 36.

Robert Garofalo and Mark Elrod. A Pictorial History of Civil War Era Musical Instruments & Military Bands (Charleston, West Virginia: Pictorial Histories, 1985), p. 26.

Joe R. Utley and Sabine K. Klaus, "The 'Catholic Fingering'—First Valve Semitone: Reversed Valve Order in Brass Instruments and Related Valve Constructions," Historic Brass Society Journal, 15 (2003), p. 77.


NMM 7017. Flugelhorn in C, probably Saxony, mid-19th century

NMM 7017.  Flugelhorn in C, probably Saxony, mid-19th century NMM 7017.  Flugelhorn in C, probably Saxony, mid-19th century
 

Top

 

Bottom

Owner’s initials engraved amateurishly on bell: L D

Four-piece, single-loop brass body with tuning slide at leadpipe. Overlapping tab seam at second bow and bell (tabs 3 mm wide and 4 mm apart). Mainz rim. Brass ferrules with one engraved line; ferrule between first and second bow of German silver with two engraved lines.

Three double-piston valves in normal order. Clock-spring mechanism without tension regulating device; round valve channel; cap-shaped piston ends. First and third valve internal slide tubing, second valve external slide tubing. Windway: first, second, third valve.

Accessories: Tuning slide with one ear.

Sounding length: 1140 mm (including tuning slide); internal diameter leadpipe: 11.4 mm; bore diameter: 10.8 mm (inner slides); internal diameter tuning slide: 10.6 mm; internal diameter tuning slide minimum (at 20 mm): 10.1 mm; bell diameter: 120 mm.

Typical flugelhorn of German-speaking regions. It might have had a second tuning slide or B-flat crook. The shape of the braces points to an origin in the Vogtland (Saxony).


NMM 7072. Alto horn in F by Franz G. Kaiser, Cincinnati, Ohio, ca. 1858

NMM 7072.  Alto horn in F by Franz G. Kaiser, Cincinnati, Ohio, ca. 1858 NMM 7072.  Alto horn in F by Franz G. Kaiser, Cincinnati, Ohio, ca. 1858
 

Top

 

Bottom

NMM 7072.  Alto horn in F by Franz G. Kaiser, Cincinnati, Ohio, ca. 1858

Engraved on brass sheet, covering the valve channel: F. G. Kaiser. / Maker / Cinti O.

Six-piece, double-loop brass body with tuning slide on second bow; shank/crook required. Overlapping tab seam, tabs sloping towards the leadpipe (2 mm wide and 2 mm apart). Narrow brass garland with impressed pattern (vertical strokes surrounded by dotted lines); Saxon rim with iron wire insert. Ferrules with one engraved line, the ferrule between third bow and bell with four engraved lines.

Three double-piston valves in normal order. Touchpieces with long leaf-springs; valve channel covered by broad brass sheet; piston ends covered by one common oblong capping. Internal slide tubing at first and third valves, external slide tubing at second valve. Windway: first, second, third valve.

Accessories: Brass mouthpiece; brass tuning shank with two ears. E-flat crook missing.

Sounding length: 1776 mm (including tuning shank); internal diameter receiver: 11.8 mm; bore diameter: 10.9 mm (inner valve slides); internal diameter receiver tuning shank: 9.2 mm; internal diameter tuning shank minimum (at 20 mm): 9.0 mm; bell diameter: 116 mm.

This unusual American-made bell-front alto horn by Franz G. Kaiser (1824/25-1890), a Saxon immigrant, incorporates several regional German traditions: The action with touchpieces and long leaf-springs in connection with double-piston valves was developed in Mainz by Carl August Müller and is called the New Mainz Model. The bell shape with very little flare follows a tradition in Prussia, the so-called Prussian Cornet. Kaiser established his workshop in Cincinnati in 1857. This instrument was built shortly after his arrival, before he went into partnership with Kohler in 1859.

Lit.:  Robert Garofalo and Mark Elrod. A Pictorial History of Civil War Era Musical Instruments & Military Bands (Charleston, West Virginia: Pictorial Histories, 1985), p. 28.

Sabine K. Klaus, "Kaiser & Kohler—German-born Brass Musical Instrument Makers in Cincinnati, Ohio," Alta Musica, Vol. 26, ed. by Raoul F. Camus and Bernhard Habla (Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 2008), pp. 215-249.


NMM 6821. Trumpet in C by Alois Gentner, Dillingen, Bavaria, ca. 1860

NMM 6821.  Trumpet in C by Alois Gentner, Dillingen, Bavaria, ca. 1860 NMM NMM 6821.  Trumpet in C by Alois Gentner, Dillingen, Bavaria, ca. 1860
 

Top

 

Bottom

Signature engraved on garland of trumpet in C by Alois Gentner, Dillingen, Bavaria, ca. 1860

Stamped on garland: ALOIS GENTNER IN DIL[LINGEN]

Six-piece, double-loop brass body with tuning slide on third bow. Overlapping tab seam, tabs sloping towards the bell rim (2 mm wide and 3 mm apart). German-silver garland impressed with heart-shaped floral pattern; Saxon rim with iron wire insert. Ferrules with one engraved line.

Three double-piston valves in reversed order lower the pitch a semitone (first valve), a whole tone (second valve), and a minor third (third valve). Clock-spring mechanism without tension regulating device; square valve channel; cap-shaped piston ends. Internal slide tubing. Windway: first, second, third valve.

Accessories: Silver mouthpiece, stamped 6 → BUESCHER → TRUE=TONE ← (not original); brass tuning bit with two ears.

Sounding length: 1178 mm (including tuning bit); internal diameter leadpipe: 11.2 mm; bore diameter: 10.6-10.9 mm; internal diameter tuning bit: 11.3 mm; internal diameter tuning bit minimum (at 20 mm): 10.5 mm; bell diameter: 106 mm.

Typical nineteenth-century, tightly wound Bavarian short-model trumpet with reversed valve order. Alois Gentner (1825-1900) is recorded as a musical instrument maker and dealer in Dillingen, Bavaria (near Augsburg), since 1855. He is known to have built brass instruments and free reed instruments for the local market.

Lit.:  Joe R. Utley and Sabine K. Klaus, "The 'Catholic Fingering'—First Valve Semitone: Reversed Valve Order in Brass Instruments and Related Valve Constructions," Historic Brass Society Journal, 15 (2003), pp. 73-74.


NMM 6779. Trumpet in B-flat and A by Denis Antoine Courtois, Paris, ca. 1875

NMM 6779.  Trumpet in B-flat and A by Denis Antoine Courtois, Paris, ca. 1875 NMM 6779.  Trumpet in B-flat and A by Denis Antoine Courtois, Paris, ca. 1875 Signature engraved on garland of trumpet by Denis Antoine Courtois, Paris, ca. 1875
 

Right side

 

Left side

 

Maker's stamp on bell

 

Stamped on bell:  Médaille / LONDRES 1862 / Exposition Universelle / PARIS 1867 / Médaille d’Honneur / EN ARGENT / ANTOINE COURTOIS / Breveté / FACTEUR DU CONSERVATOIRE NATIONAL / 88. rue des Marais St. Martin / Paris / 1ER PRIX / GRANDE MÉDAILLE D’OR / EXPOSITION DE MOSCOU / 1872 / S. ARTHUR CHAPPELL / Sole agent / 52 New Bond Street / London

Four-piece, single-loop, silver-plated brass body with tuning slide on first bow. Bell seam not visible because of plating. Delicate French rim with iron wire insert. Ferrules with one engraved line adjacent to each edge. Single water key at main tuning slide.

Three double-piston valves in normal order. Touchpieces piston-operated with spring in tube (Système belge); round valve channel; piston ends covered by one common oblong capping; piston pairs connected by metal sheets. First and third valve with internal slide tubing, second valve with external slide tubing. Windway: first, second, third valve.

Accessories: Additional main tuning slide for the pitch of A. Black-stained wooden case with purple cloth interior. Silver-plated brass cornet tuning bit with ears and engraved flower ornament; silver cornet mouthpiece stamped 3 / BESSON & CO / BREVETÉ (neither one original).

Sounding length: 1264 mm (B-flat), 1354 mm (A); internal diameter receiver: 11.5; internal diameter receiver minimum (at 29 mm): 10.0 mm; bore diameter: 10.5 (inner valve slides); bell diameter: 110 mm.

Trumpets with Système belge double-piston valves were rarely manufactured by the Parisian firm of Antoine Courtois. It is likely that this one was a special order by a Belgian customer. However, the instrument was sold in London by Courtois’ agent, Samuel Arthur Chappell (1834-1904).

National Music Museum
The University of South Dakota
414 East Clark Street
Vermillion, SD 57069

©National Music Museum, 2003-2014
Most recent update: November 30, 2010

The University of South Dakota
Return to Top of Page