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Annotated Checklist of Keyboard Instruments
(Harpsichords, Clavichords, Pianos, Pipe Organs)

Abell Gallery for Keyboard Instruments

Seventeen instruments are displayed in the Abell Gallery for keyboard instruments. A tour guide opens the doors of an upright grand piano by Clementi Company, London, ca. 1818. In the foreground is a grand piano by Anton Martin Thÿm, Vienna, ca. 1815. To the right is a lyrafluegel by Johann Christian Schleip, Berlin, ca. 1825 and several English square pianos, dated 1776, 1791, and 1829, designed for home use.

Checklist Index

Index of Makers, Builders, and Manufacturers
Clavichords
Harpsichords
Pianos, European
Orphica
Tangentenflügel
Pianos, American
Pipe Organs
Practice Keyboards
Mechanical Keyboards
Experimental Keyboards
Modern Instruments of Historical Types


Specific Makers, Builders, and Manufacturers

 

Albrecht, Charles
Antunes, Manuel
Astor, George
Babcock, Alpheus: 1828, 1828
Ball, James
Bas, Louis
Beale, F., and Co.
Bösendorfer, Ignaz
Boos, Joseph Anton
Bordas, Geronimo
Broadwood, Johannes
Broadwood, John, and Sons: 1810-15, 1829, 1842, 1850-55, 1857, 1864, 1868, 1876
Buntebart, Gabriel
Calisto, José
Chickering and Mackays
Chickering and Sons: 1855, 1864, 1884
Clark Piano Co., Melville
Clementi and Co.: 1817, 1818, 1832
Davison and Redpath
Decker Brothers: 1870, 1895
Dieffenbach, Christian
Doll, Jacob
Dufour, Nicolas
Dutton, David
Ellwood (Wurlitzer)
Erard
Erben, Henry
Everbroeck, Gommaar van
Fischer, J. and C.: 1858
Franciolini, Leopoldo
Germain, Jacques: 1785, 1994
Gilbert, Timothy, and Co.
Goble, Robert
Gough, Hugh
Goulding & D'Almaine
Grinde, Honore
Guarracino, Onofrio
Haines Brothers
Hallet, Davis and Co.
Hannss, Johannes Jacob
Harlan, Peter
Hartley, Stephen
Haward, Charles
Heilmann, Matthäus
Hiller, Karl
Hodsdon, Alec
Hofmann, Ferdinand
Hubbard Harpsichords, Frank
Jacobek Brothers
Jankó, Paul von
Janssen, B. H.: 1914; after 1919
Kearsing, John
Kirckman, Joseph
Klein, Joseph
Knabe, Gaehle, and Co.
Knabe, William, and Co.: 1865; 1891
Kraemer, Johann Paul
Kranich and Bach
Kuronen, Darcy
Lauter Humana Co.
Longman & Co.
Looßer, Josef
Lyon and Healy, Washburn
Mármol, Juan del
Marr, Robert
Mathushek Piano Manufacturing Co.
Maucher, Gottfried
Miñaca, Tomas
Nunns, Robert and William
Oehler, C.
Operators Piano Company
Oreibla, Giuseppe
Pleyel, Ignace
Pratt, Read & Co.
Rickers, John
Ridolfi, Giacomo
Rosenberger, Michael
Ruck, C. Charles
Ruckers, Andreas the Elder: 1607, 1643
Scherr, Emilius N.
Schimmel and Nelson
Schleip, Johann Christian
Schmahl, Christoph Friedrich
Seeburg
Shepherd, J. and W.
Silbermann, Johann Heinrich
Söderström, Henric Johan
Sodi, Vincenzio: 1782, 1789
Spath, Frantz Jacob: 1767, 1784
Stein, André:  1820-1830, 1830-1842
Steinway and Sons: 1867, 1867a, 1872
Steward, John
Stodart, Matthew and William
Stodart, William: 1820, 1835
Straube Co.
Streicher und Sohn, Nannette
Thÿm, Anton Martin
Vaninus, Franciscus
Virgil Piano School Co.
Virgil Practice Clavier Co.: 1896, 1899, 1900-1905
Wilcox and White Co.
Wilkie, Medcalf, and Bogardus
Wolf, Thomas and Barbara: 1994, 2004
Wood, Orville T.: 1970, 1971
Wurlitzer: 1912, 1927, 1937
Zuckermann Harpsichords
Zumpe, Johannes and Gabriel Buntebart


Harpsichords
(in chronological order)

NMM 14408. Harpsichord, Naples, ca. 1530. Inner/outer case. Single manual, C/E-c3 (4 octaves), 1 × 8'. Purchase funds from the William Selz Estate, Mr. & Mrs. Clifford E. Graese Fund, and Mr. & Mrs. R. E. Rawlins Fund, 2009.

Denzil Wraight, The Stringing of Italian Keyboard Instruments c.1500—c.1650, Ph.D. thesis, The Queen’s University of Belfast, 1997, no. 641.

John Koster, "The Early Neapolitan School of Harpsichord Making," in Domenico Scarlatti en España / Domenico Scarlatti in Spain, Luisa Morales, ed. (Garrucha, Almería, Spain: Asociación Cultural LEAL, 2009), pp. 47-80 (especially p. 72 and figs. 3, 7, 11, 12, and 13).

"Keyboards in Vermillion: with John Koster" (interview), Harpsichord & Fortepiano, 16, no. 2 (Spring 2012), cover and p. 16.



NMM 4660. Octave virginal, Naples, ca. 1535. Single manual, C/E-c3 (4 octaves). Arne B. and Jeanne F. Larson Fund, 1989.

Lit.:   Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), p. 7.

Denzil Wraight, "An Attribution of an Unsigned Spinet," FoMRHI Quarterly, No. 70 (January 1993), Communication 1150, pp. 45-46.

John Koster, "A Comment on FoMRHI Comm. 1150," FoMRHI Quarterly, No. 71 (April 1993), Communication 1166, pp. 36-37.

John Koster, Keyboard Instruments in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1994), pp. 9-10.

John Koster, "Keyboard Instruments Traced Back to 16th-Century Naples," Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. XXIII, No. 1 (October 1995), pp. 1-3.

John Koster, "The Early Neapolitan School of Harpsichord Making," in Domenico Scarlatti en España / Domenico Scarlatti in Spain, Luisa Morales, ed. (Garrucha, Almería, Spain: Asociación Cultural LEAL, 2009), pp. 47-80 (especially p. 53 and 74 and figs. 3, 7, 11, 12, and 13).



NMM 7384.  Harpsichord by Andreas Ruckers the Elder, Antwerp, 1607

NMM 7384. Harpsichord by Andreas Ruckers the Elder, Antwerp, 1607. Single manual, now C to d3 (4+ octaves); 2 × 8' + 1 × 4', with buff stop (divided at b) simultaneously affecting both sets of 8' strings; originally C/E to c3 (4 octaves); 1 × 8' + 1 × 4', with 8' buff stop divided at f1/f#1. The earliest known dated harpsichord by Andreas Ruckers. Rose with "AR" flanking a harp-playing angel; soundboard with painted decoration including the date "1607"; although the case was redecorated during the 18th and/or 19th century, it is essentially unaltered, retaining its original dimensions, internal construction, bottom board, and tool compartment with a door in the spine. The original bridges, nuts, and key frame were retained in the petit ravalement during which the keys and action were replaced. The date "12 octobre 1757" is written on the key frame. Ex coll.: Wolfgang Ruf, Emmetten, Switzerland. Rawlins fund, 1999.

Lit.:  John Koster, "An Infinitely Precious Instrument--A Newly Discovered Harpsichord by Andreas Ruckers, Antwerp, 1607," America's Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter 27, No. 1 (February 2000), pp. 4-5 and 7.

John Koster, "A Netherlandish Harpsichord of 1658 Re-examined," Galpin Society Journal, Vol. 53 (April 2000), p. 139.

John Koster, "Towards an Optimal Instrument:  Domenico Scarlatti and the New Wave of Iberian Harpsichord Making," Early Music, Vol. 35, No. 4 (November 2007), pp. 575-604; fig. 5.

John Koster, "Traditional Iberian Harpsichord Making in its European Context," Galpin Society Journal 61 (2008), pp. 8, 21, 22, 29, 30, 45, 67.



NMM 12994.  Harpsichord, Naples(?), ca. 1625-1675. Inner/outer case. Single manual, GG/BB-c3 (4+ octaves); 2 × 8'. The instrument was made with divided accidentals for d-sharp/e-flat, g-sharp/a-flat, a-sharp/b-flat, c1-sharp/d1-flat, d1-sharp/e1-flat, f1-sharp/g1-flat, and g1-sharp/a1-flat. The extra accidentals (d-sharp, a-flat, a-sharp, d1-flat, d1-sharp, g1-flat, and a1-flat) were suppressed, perhaps as early as the eighteenth century, by cutting through their levers in front of the balance pins, gluing together the front portions of the divided levers, and gluing full-length ebony covers over the divided walnut substrates. Otherwise, the keyboard, including the levers for the suppressed extra accidentals, is substantially intact, and the provision for the seven extra notes in the jack guides and the pinning of the nut and bridge, etc., was retained. Gift of Joseph Rawley, Jamestown, North Carolina, 2006.

Lit.:  John Watson, "A Catalog of Antique Keyboard Instruments in the Southeast, Part II," Early Keyboard Journal, Vol. 3 (1984-85), p. 65.

John Koster, "The Early Neapolitan School of Harpsichord Making," in Domenico Scarlatti en España / Domenico Scarlatti in Spain, Luisa Morales, ed. (Garrucha, Almería, Spain: Asociación Cultural LEAL, 2009), pp. 47-80 (especially pp. 50, 59, 62, and 74 and figs. 18 and 19).



NMM 10000.  Harpsichord by Andreas Ruckers the Elder, Antwerp, 1643

NMM 10000. Harpsichord by Andreas Ruckers the Elder, Antwerp, 1643. Double manual, GG-e3 (4+ octaves); 2 × 8', 1 × 4', buff. Hand stops, shove coupler. Although the rose is missing and the batten with the maker's name is not original, the instrument is accepted by all authorities without reservation as the work of Andreas Ruckers. The original painted soundboard decoration includes the date "1643." The lid painting is attributed to Frans Francken the Younger. Originally a typical Ruckers transposing double, the instrument underwent ravalement in France, perhaps by Antoine Vater (active in Paris from 1715 to after 1759). Ex coll.: Sheridan Germann, Boston; sold in 1936 by the owners of the Château de Chenonceaux. Purchase funds gift of Margaret L. Sletwold Estate and Arne B. and Jeanne F. Larson Fund, 2000.

Lit.:  Grant O'Brien, Ruckers: a Harpsichord and Virginal Building Tradition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), p. 267.

Sheridan Germann, "The Accidental Collector," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. V, No. 3 (March 1991), pp. 1-5.

Donald H. Boalch, Makers of the Harpsichord and Clavichord 1440-1840. Third edition, edited by Charles Mould (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995), p. 562.

Sheridan Germann, "Harpsichord Decoration: a Conspectus," in The Historical Harpsichord 4, edited by Howard Schott (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2002), pp. 1-213, specifically pp. 129 and 131.

John Koster, "A Second 'Infinitely Precious Instrument' by Andreas Ruckers Enters the NMM's Collections," National Music Museum Newsletter Vol. 32, No. 3 (August 2005), pp. 4-5.

"Keyboards in Vermillion: with John Koster" (interview), Harpsichord & Fortepiano, 16, no. 2 (Spring 2012), p. 18.



NMM 3985.  Harpsichord by Gommaar van Everbroeck, Antwerp, 1659

NMM 3985. Harpsichord by Gommaar van Everbroeck, Antwerp, 1659. Single manual, GG/BB-c3 (4+ octaves); 1 × 8', 1 × 4', buff. Painted soundboard. Rawlins fund, 1986.

Lit.:  André P. Larson, The National Music Museum: A Pictorial Souvenir (Vermillion: National Music Museum, 1988), p. 42.

Grant O'Brien, Ruckers: a Harpsichord and Virginal Building Tradition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), p. 153.

Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), p. 7.

Donald H. Boalch, Makers of the Harpsichord and Clavichord 1440-1840. Third edition, edited by Charles Mould (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995), p. 308.

Sheridan Germann, "Harpsichord Decoration: A Conspectus," in Howard Schott, ed., The Historical Harpsichord, Vol. 4 (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2002), pp. 1-213, specifically, p. 113.

Edward L. Kottick, A History of the Harpsichord (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003), p. 118.

Ferdinand J. de Hen, "Low Countries," The Harpsichord and Clavichord: an Encyclopedia, Igor Kipnis, editor (New York: Routledge, 2007), p. 310.

John Koster, "Two Antwerp Harpsichords from the Second Half of the Seventeenth Century," in J. Lambrechts-Douillez and J. Koster, Mededelingen van het Ruckers-Genootschap 8 (Antwerp: Ruckers Genootschap, 2009), pp. 105-127.

John Koster, "Domenico Scarlatti and the Transformation of Iberian Harpsichord Making," in Domenico Scarlatti en España / Domenico Scarlatti in Spain, Luisa Morales, ed. (Garrucha, Almería, Spain: Asociación Cultural LEAL, 2009), pp. 187-208 (especially fig. 3a).



NMM 4657.  Harpsichord by Giacomo Ridolfi, Rome, ca. 1660-1690.

NMM 4657. Harpsichord by Giacomo Ridolfi, Rome, ca. 1660-1690 . Inner/outer case. Single manual, C/E-c3 (4 octaves); 2 × 8'. Ex coll.: Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin, Ohio. Purchase funds given by Margaret Ann and Hubert H. Everist, Sioux City, Iowa, 1989.

Lit.:  Donald H. Boalch, Makers of the Harpsichord and Clavichord 1440-1840. Third edition, edited by Charles Mould (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995), p. 541.

John Koster, "Museum Collections as Resources for Musical Instrument Makers," American Lutherie, Vol. 42 (Summer 1995), pp. 34-35.

André P. Larson, "Harpsichord by Giacomo Ridolfi," The South Dakota Musician (Fall 1995), cover and p. 28.

Ingrid Matthews and Byron Schenkman, In Stil Moderno: The Fantastic Style in Seventeenth-Century Italy (Berkeley, California: Wildboar, 1995). CD.

Sheridan Germann, "Harpsichord Decoration: A Conspectus," in Howard Schott, ed., The Historical Harpsichord, Vol. 4 (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2002), pp. 1-213, specifically, pp. 95 and 101.

Ingrid Matthews and Byron Schenkman, Canzoni da Sonar (Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Centaur, 2002). CD.

John Koster, "Traditional Iberian Harpsichord Making in its European Context," Galpin Society Journal 61 (2008), pp. 65.

John Koster, "The Early Neapolitan School of Harpsichord Making," in Domenico Scarlatti en España / Domenico Scarlatti in Spain, Luisa Morales, ed. (Garrucha, Almería, Spain: Asociación Cultural LEAL, 2009), Table 7 (p. 70).

John Koster, "Domenico Scarlatti and the Transformation of Iberian Harpsichord Making," in Domenico Scarlatti en España / Domenico Scarlatti in Spain, Luisa Morales, ed. (Garrucha, Almería, Spain: Asociación Cultural LEAL, 2009), pp. 187-208 (especially fig. 5).

"Keyboards in Vermillion: with John Koster" (interview), Harpsichord & Fortepiano, 16, no. 2 (Spring 2012), p. 18.



NMM 3449.  Miniature virginal by Franciscus Vaninus, Bologna, 1672

NMM 3449. Miniature virginal by Franciscus Vaninus, Bologna, 1672. Single manual, c/e-f2 (2+ octaves); 1 × 2'. Ex coll.: E. M. W. Paul. Witten-Rawlins Collection, 1984.

Lit.:   André P. Larson, The National Music Museum: A Pictorial Souvenir (Vermillion: National Music Museum, 1988), p. 41.

Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), pp. 7 & 9.

Donald H. Boalch, Makers of the Harpsichord and Clavichord 1440-1840. Third edition, edited by Charles Mould (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995), p. 669.



NMM 5943.  Harpsichord by Nicolas Dufour, Paris, 1683

NMM 5943. Harpsichord by Nicolas Dufour, Paris, 1683. Single manual, originally GG/BB-c3 (4+ octaves; later enlarged to AA-d3; altered in 1796 to C-f3; subsequently restored to AA-d3); 2 × 8'. Decorative painting on the soundboard attributed to an anonymous artist whose work is also found on instruments made in 1667, 1668, and 1672 by other Parisian harpsichord makers. Inscription printed on late-18th-century paper label pasted to the front edge of the wrest plank: NICOLAS DUFOUR A PARIS 1683. REPARÉ PAR H.E GRINDE EN 1796. A NICE, the first part presumably copied from the original maker's inscription. Honoré Grinde (1754-1843; sometimes spelled Grinda) was an organ builder in Nice. Ex coll.: Wolfgang Ruf, Rastatt, Germany. Rawlins fund, 1996.

Lit.:  Sheridan Germann, "Monsieur Doublet and His Confreres: The Harpsichord Decorators of Paris," pt. 2, Early Music, Vol. 9, No. 2 (April 1981), p. 192.

Michel Foussard and Jean-Loup Fontana, eds., Clans 1792, l’Orgue d’Honoré Grinda (Nice: Conseil Général des Alpes-Maritimes, 1982).

Dieter Krickeberg and Horst Rase, "Beitrage zur Kenntnis des mittel- und norddeutschen Cembalobaus um 1700," in Studia Organologica: Festschrift fur John Henry van der Meer, edited by Friedemann (Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1987), p. 301.

Elisabeth Pastorelli, Orgues et facteurs de Nice (fin XVIIIe, début XXe siècle), (Béziers: Société de Musicologie de Languedoc, 1988).

John Koster, Keyboard Musical Instruments in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1994), p. 45, note 4.

Donald H. Boalch, Makers of the Harpsichord and Clavichord 1440-1840. Third edition, edited by Charles Mould (Oxford: Clarendon Press 1995), p. 300.

John Koster, "Rare French Harpsichord Enters Museum's Collections," Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. 23, No. 4 (August 1996), pp. 1-3.

Alain and Marie-Christine Anselm, "La Collection Yannick Guillou," Musique, Images, Instruments (Revue francaise d'organologie et d'iconographie musicale), No. 2 (1996), pp. 147-148, note 42.

Alain and Marie-Christine Anselm, "Petit prelude a l'etude des clavecins francais du XVIIe siecle," Musique, Images, Instruments (Revue francaise d'organologie et d'iconographie musicale), No. 2 (1996), p. 228.

Denzil Wraight, The Stringing of Italian Keyboard Instruments c.1500-c.1650 (Ph.D. thesis, The Queen’s University of Belfast, 1996; revised 1997), vol. 1, p. 179.

Alain and Marie-Christine Anselm, "Le deux clavecins signés 'J. Collesse', 1768 et 1775," Musique, Images, Instruments (Revue francaise d'organologie et d'iconographie musicale), No. 4 (1999), p. 84, note 16.

R. Dean Anderson, "Extant Harpsichords Built or Rebuilt in France During the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: an Overview and Annotated List, Part 1," Early Keyboard Journal 19 (2001), pp. 137-138.

John Koster, "Traditional Iberian Harpsichord Making in its European Context," Galpin Society Journal 61 (2008), pp. 10, 58, 67.

Charles Astro, Robert Adelson, et al., Trois siècles de facture instrumentale à Nice, exhibition catalogue, Musée du Palais Lascaris (Nice: Éditions Nice Musées, 2009), p. 21.

John Koster, "Domenico Scarlatti and the Transformation of Iberian Harpsichord Making," in Domenico Scarlatti en España / Domenico Scarlatti in Spain, Luisa Morales, ed. (Garrucha, Almería, Spain: Asociación Cultural LEAL, 2009), pp. 187-208 (especially fig. 4).

John Koster, "The Harpsichord in Seventeenth-Century France," in Christian Ahrens and Gregor Klinke, eds., Cembalo, Clavecin, Harpsichord: Regionale Traditionen des Cembalobaus - Symposium im Rahmen der 35. Tage Alter Musik in Herne 2010 (Munich and Salzburg: Musikverlag Katzbichler, 2011), pp. 10-42, including figs. 6-9.

"Keyboards in Vermillion: with John Koster" (interview), Harpsichord & Fortepiano, 16, no. 2 (Spring 2012), p. 18.



NMM 10773.  Spinet by Charles Haward, London, 1689

NMM 10773. Spinet by Charles Haward, London, 1689. Single manual, GG/BB-c3 with divided E-flat (4+ octaves). Tony and Bonnie Vinatieri Family Trust, 2004.

Lit.:  Donald H. Boalch, Makers of the Harpsichord and Clavichord 1440-1840. Third edition, edited by Charles Mould (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995), pp. 378-379.

John Koster, "The Diary of Samuel Pepys and the NMM’s Recently Acquired Spinet by Charles Haward, London, 1689," National Music Museum Newsletter 31, No. 4 (November 2004), pp. 4-5.

Darryl Martin, "The Native Tradition in Transition: English Hrpsichords circa 1680-1725," in John Koster, ed.,  Aspects of Harpsichord Making in the British Isles (The Historical Harpsichord, Vol. 5; Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2009), pp. 1-115, specifically p. 16.



NMM 6041.  Octave virginal by Onofrio Guarracino, Naples, 1694

NMM 6041. Octave virginal by Onofrio Guarracino, Naples, 1694. Single manual, C/E-c3 (4 octaves). Purchase funds gift of Margaret Ann and Hubert H. Everist, Sioux City, Iowa, 1997.

Lit.:  John Koster, "Museum Acquires Rare 17th-Century Italian Virginal," America's Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. XXIV, No. 3 (April 1997), pp. 1-2.

David Schulenberg, Music of the Baroque (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), p. 29.

John Koster, "The Early Neapolitan School of Harpsichord Making," in Domenico Scarlatti en España / Domenico Scarlatti in Spain, Luisa Morales, ed. (Garrucha, Almería, Spain: Asociación Cultural LEAL, 2009), pp. 47-80 (especially p. 75 and figs. 4 and 10).



NMM 3870. Harpsichord, Italy, ca. 1700. Single manual, C/E-c3 (4 octaves); 3 × 8'. Spurious signature on later nameboard: Giuseppe Oreibla Fece/in Sinigalia nell'anno 1774 (Giuseppe Oreibla, Senigallia, Italy, 1774). Rawlins fund, 1985.

Lit.:  André P. Larson, The National Music Museum: A Pictorial Souvenir (Vermillion: National Music Museum, 1988), pp. 19 and 45.

Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), p. 7.

Donald H. Boalch, Makers of the Harpsichord and Clavichord 1440-1840. Third edition, edited by Charles Mould (Oxford: Clarendon Press 1995), p. 518.

Susana Henriques Caldeira, An Italian Harpsichord Built About 1700: History Design, and Conservation, M.M. Thesis (University of South Dakota: 2004).



NMM 6204.  Harpsichord by Jose Calisto, Portugal, 1780

NMM 6204. Harpsichord by José Calisto, Portugal, 1780. Single manual, GG-g3 (5 octaves); 2 × 8'; buff. Ex coll.: Wolfgang Ruf, Emmetten, Switzerland. Rawlins fund, 1999.

Click here to hear this harpsichord (excerpt from Pedro António Avondano, Sonata in Fa Major. From the CD, Pedro António Avondano Sonatas, available from the Museum's Gift Shop.

Lit.:  Donald H. Boalch, Makers of the Harpsichord and Clavichord 1440-1840. Third edition, edited by Charles Mould (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995), pp. 263-264.

Anne Robert, Carlos Seixas, Sonates pour Clavecin (Vol. II) (France: Optical Disc de France, 1997). CD.

John Koster, "A Rare Portugese Harpsichord by José Calisto, 1780," America's Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter 26, No. 3 (August 1999), pp. 4-5.

John Koster, "Towards an Optimal Instrument:  Domenico Scarlatti and the New Wave of Iberian Harpsichord Making," Early Music 35, No. 4 (November 2007), pp. 575-604.

John Koster, "Traditional Iberian Harpsichord Making in its European Context," Galpin Society Journal 61 (2008), pp. 8, 9, 13, 62.

John Koster, "Domenico Scarlatti and the Transformation of Iberian Harpsichord Making," in Domenico Scarlatti en España / Domenico Scarlatti in Spain, Luisa Morales, ed. (Garrucha, Almería, Spain: Asociación Cultural LEAL, 2009), pp. 187-208 (especially pp. 200, and 204-206 and figs. 1b, 3c, 11, 12, and 14).

John Koster, "Scarlatti and His Keyboards," Early Music 37, No. 2 (May 2009), pp. 345-346.

Ronald Broude, "Playing On Originals: The Material Presence of the Past," Early Music America 15, No. 4 (Winter 2009): 35.

Susanne Skyrm, ed., with assistance from Calvert Johnston and John Koster, Anthology of Eighteenth-Century Spanish Keyboard Music for Organ, Piano, Harpsichord, or Clavichord (Colfax, North Carolina: Wayne Leupold Editions, 2010), p. x.

"Keyboards in Vermillion: with John Koster" (interview), Harpsichord & Fortepiano, 16, no. 2 (Spring 2012), p. 18.



NMM 9825.  Harpsichord (Cembalo Angelico) by Vincenzio Sodi, Florence, 1782

NMM 9825. Harpsichord (Cembalo Angelico) by Vincenzio Sodi, Florence, 1782 (about the date, see note below). Single manual FF-f3 (5 octaves); 2 × 8' stringing; two registers of double-tongued jacks (the missing front row replaced with modern single-tongued jacks), with sole-leather plectra on one side and oil-tanned leather (peau de buffle?) on the other, thus providing alternative 2 × 8' registrations of hard or soft plectra, in the manner of the cembalo angelico, described in an anonymous pamphlet published in Rome in 1775 (translation in Raymond Russell, The Harpsichord and Clavichord: an Introductory Study [London: Faber and Faber, 1959], pp. 131-142.) Arne B. and Jeanne F. Larson Fund and gift of Conrad Seamen, Pittsburgh, 2000.

References to the instrument published prior to its acquisition by the Museum, give the date as 1780. The inscription on the nameboard, "Vincentius Sodi Florentinus fecit anno Domini 1780," appears to be a later addition, perhaps by Leopoldo Franciolini, through whose hands the instrument passed in the early twentieth century. The last digit of the date, 1780, on the first and last key levers appears to have been altered. The 1782 on the first jack of the back register is authentic and unaltered as are the inscriptions on the back of the keyboard guide rack, "Vincenzio Sodi Fece Anno d[followed by an abbreviation for omini] 1782 in Firenze" and on a bar on the underside of the soundboard, "Sodi Vincenzio Sodi Fiorentino Fece Anno d[followed by an abbreviation for omini] 1782". Sodi presumably wrote his surname again at the beginning of the latter inscription, which originally began with "Vincenzio", as a clarification when he noticed that the "Sodi" written in the normal position after his Christian name was illegible because the ink had been disturbed by a kerf in the wood.

Lit.:  Donald H. Boalch, Makers of the Harpsichord and Clavichord, 1440-1840, First edition (London: George Ronald, 1956), p. 116 and plates 4 and 5.

Edwin M. Ripin, The Instrument Catalogs of Leopoldo Franciolini, Music Indexes and Bibliographies, no. 9 (Hackensack, N.J.: Joseph Boonin, 1974), "Photograph 37," p. 135.

Donald H. Boalch, Makers of the Harpsichord and Clavichord 1440-1840. Third edition, edited by Charles Mould (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995), p. 636.

Harpsichord Clearing House, advertisement, Journal of the American Musicological Society, Vol. 51, no. 2 (Summer 1998), back cover.

David Sutherland, "The Florentine School of Cembalo-Making Centered in the Works of Bartolomeo Cristofori," Early Keyboard Journal, Vols. 16-17 (1998-99), pp. 49-53.

John Koster, "Three Grand Pianos in the Florentine Tradition," Musique-Images-Instruments, Vol. 4 (1999), pp. 94-116.

John Koster, "An Angelic Harpsichord," America's Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter 28, No. 2 (May 2001), pp. 6-7.

John Koster, "Sodi, Vincenzio," The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Second Edition, Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell, editors (London: Macmillan, 2001), Vol. 23, p. 618.

John Koster, "Towards an Optimal Instrument:  Domenico Scarlatti and the New Wave of Iberian Harpsichord Making," Early Music, Vol. 35, No. 4 (November 2007), pp. 575-604.

John Koster, "Traditional Iberian Harpsichord Making in its European Context," Galpin Society Journal 61 (2008), pp. 8, 66.

John Koster, "Domenico Scarlatti and the Transformation of Iberian Harpsichord Making," in Domenico Scarlatti en España / Domenico Scarlatti in Spain, Luisa Morales, ed. (Garrucha, Almería, Spain: Asociación Cultural LEAL, 2009), pp. 187-208 (especially figs. 3d and 14).

María Virginia Rolfo, Vincenzio Sodi: Life and Work (M.M. thesis, Univeristy of South Dakota, 2011), pp. 125-142.



NMM 3327.  Harpsichord by Jacques Germain, Paris, 1785

NMM 3327. Harpsichord by Jacques Germain, Paris, 1785. Double manual, FF-f3 (5 octaves); 2 × 8', 1 × 4', buff, peau de buffle. Four hand stops, shove coupler. Painted soundboard. Rawlins fund, 1983.

Click here to hear this harpsichord (excerpt from Jean-Baptitse Forqueray (1699-1782), Cinquième Suite: La Rameau). From the CD, Jean-Baptiste Forqueray: Pièces de Clavecin, available from the Museum's Gift Shop.

Lit.:  Paul Sentenac, "Epinettes et clavecins decares," La Renaissance de l'art francais et des industries deluxe, 6e annee, No. 5 (May 1923), p. 262.

Raymond Russell, The Harpsichord and Clavichord (London: 1959), p. 62.

"A Harpsichord of Note," The Harpsichord, Vol. VII, No. 4 (November- January 1974-75), pp. 10-11.

Sheridan Germann, "'Mrs. Crawley's Couchet' Reconsidered," Early Music, Vol. 7, No. 4 (October 1979), pp. 479 and 481.

Sheridan Germann, "Monsieur Doublet and His Confreres: The Harpsichord Decorators of Paris," pt. 2, Early Music, Vol. 9, No. 2 (April 1981), pp. 198-200 and 203.

"Important Acquisitions of 1983 Await New Galleries," Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. XI, No. 2 (January 1984), pp. 1-3.

"1983 Acquisitions at USD Music Museum," Newsletter of the American Musical Instrument Society, Vol. XIII, No. 2 (June 1984), pp. 5-6.

André P. Larson, The National Music Museum: A Pictorial Souvenir (Vermillion: National Music Museum, 1988), p. 43.

André P. Larson, "Double Manual Harpsichord," South Dakota Musician, Vol. 26, No. 1 (Fall 1991), cover and p. 22.

Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), pp. 7-8.

Donald H. Boalch, Makers of the Harpsichord and Clavichord 1440-1840. Third edition, edited by Charles Mould (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995), p. 334.

John Koster, "Restoration, Reconstruction and Copying in Musical Instrument Collections," Museum International, Vol. 189, No. 1 (January-March 1996), pp. 36-40.

David Schulenberg, Music of the Baroque (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), p. 213.

Thomas Wolf, "Goermans (Germain)," The Harpsichord and Clavichord: an Encyclopedia, Igor Kipnis, editor (New York: Routledge, 2007), p. 211.

"Keyboards in Vermillion: with John Koster" (interview), Harpsichord & Fortepiano, 16, no. 2 (Spring 2012), pp. 15-16.

Recordings

Arthur Haas, Harpsichord Music of Jean-Henry D'Anglebert (Berkeley, California: Wildboar, 1988). CD.

Arthur Haas, Jean-Baptiste Forqueray, Suites Clavecin 1747 (Berkeley, California: Wildboar, 1992). CD.

Edward Parmentier, Johann Sebastian Bach: Six English Suites (Berkeley, California: Wildboar, 1993). CD.

Edward Parmentier, Bach: Toccatas BWV 910-916 Complete (Berkeley, California: Wildboar, 1998). CD.



NMM 6205.  Spinet by Johann Heinrich Silbermann, Strasbourg, 1785

NMM 6205. Spinet by Johann Heinrich Silbermann, Strasbourg, 1785. Single manual, FF-f3 (5 octaves). Ex coll.: Wolfgang Ruf, Emmetten, Switzerland. Rawlins fund, 1999.

Lit.:  John Koster, "Rare 1785 Silbermann Spinet Only Example Outside of Europe," America's Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, 26, No. 2 (May 1999), pp. 1-3.

John Koster, "Historical Organs in the Museum Context," The Tracker 50, Nos. 3 & 4 (Summer/Fall 2006), p. 32.

Sheridan Germann, "Harpsichord Decoration: A Conspectus," in Howard Schott, ed., The Historical Harpsichord, Vol. 4 (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2002), pp. 1-213, specifically, p. 177.

"Keyboards in Vermillion: with John Koster" (interview), Harpsichord & Fortepiano, 16, no. 2 (Spring 2012), p. 19.



NMM 3328.  Harpsichord by Joseph Kirckman, London, 1798

NMM 3328. Harpsichord by Joseph Kirckman, London, 1798. Double manual, FF-f3 (5 octaves); 2 × 8', 1 × 4', lute, buff. Six hand stops. Two pedals: machine stop, Venetian swell. Rawlins fund, 1983.

Click here to hear this harpsichord (excerpt from Antonio Soler (1729-1783), Sonata in D minor, R. 15). From the CD, Soler and Scarlatti in London: A Selection of Blended Sonatas, available from the Museum's Gift Shop.

Lit.:  Richard Buchmayer, "Cembalo oder Pianoforte?," Bach-Jahrbuch (1908), pp. 64-93 (especially p. 65).

"Important Acquisitions of 1983 Await New Galleries," Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. XI, No. 2 (January 1984), pp. 1-3.

André P. Larson, The National Music Museum: A Pictorial Souvenir (Vermillion: National Music Museum, 1988), p. 44.

Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), p. 7.

Donald H. Boalch, Makers of the Harpsichord and Clavichord 1440-1840. Third edition, edited by Charles Mould (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995), p. 457.

Luisa Morales, Soler and Scarlatti in London: A Selection of Blended Sonatas (Almeria, Spain:  FIMTE, 2006). CD.

Charles Mould, "Kirkman (Kirckman)," The Harpsichord and Clavichord: an Encyclopedia, Igor Kipnis, editor (New York: Routledge, 2007), p. 292.

John Koster, "Traditional Iberian Harpsichord Making in its European Context," Galpin Society Journal 61 (2008), pp. 24, 67.

Michael Latcham, "The Instrument of Many Colours Made by Tadeo Tornel in Murcia, 1777," in Domenico Scarlatti en España / Domenico Scarlatti in Spain, Luisa Morales, ed. (Garrucha, Almería, Spain: Asociación Cultural LEAL, 2009), pp. 241-297 (especially fig. 2).

Helen Cripe, Thomas Jefferson and Music, Revised Edition (Monticello: Thomas Jefferson Foundation, 2009).

Darryl Martin, "The Native Tradition in Transition: English Hrpsichords circa 1680-1725," in John Koster, ed.,  Aspects of Harpsichord Making in the British Isles (The Historical Harpsichord, Vol. 5; Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2009), pp. 1-115, specifically pp. 13 and 15.

Susanne Skyrm, ed., with assistance from Calvert Johnston and John Koster, Anthology of Eighteenth-Century Spanish Keyboard Music for Organ, Piano, Harpsichord, or Clavichord (Colfax, North Carolina: Wayne Leupold Editions, 2010), p. xi.

Return to Keyboard Checklist Index


Clavichords
(in chronological order)

NMM 12450. Clavichord, Germany, first half 18th century. Fretted. C/E-c3 (4 octaves). Double strung (2 × 8'). Ex coll.: Walter J. Erdmann, Goslar, Germany. Board of Trustees, 2006.



NMM 6105. Clavichord, Sweden, ca. 1780. Fretted. C-f3 (4+ octaves). Double strung (2 × 8'). Purchase funds gift of Burke-BankWest, Pierre, South Dakota, 1997.

Lit.:  John Koster, "List Gets Shorter as Rare Swedish Clavichord is Found!," America's Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. XXVII, No. 4 (November 2000), pp. 1-2.

Gregory Crowell, "Two Eighteenth-Century Swedish Clavichords in American Collections," in Thomas Donahue, ed., Essays in Honor of Christopher Hogwood: The Maestro's Direction (Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press, 2011), pp. 181-196.



NMM 3335. Clavichord by Johann Paul Kraemer and Sons, Göttingen, 1804. Unfretted. FF-a3 (5+ octaves). FF-A triple-strung (2 × 8' and 1 × 4'); B-flat-a3 double-strung (2 × 8'). Ex coll.: Karl Haake, Hannover; Deutsches Museum, Munich; Paul Reusch; Schlossgutes Katharinenhof, Wurttemberg (loan); University of Göttingen (loan). Rawlins Fund, 1983.

Lit.:  "Important Acquisitions of 1983 Await New Galleries," Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. XI, No. 2 (January 1984), pp. 1-2.

"1983 Acquisitions at USD Music Museum," Newsletter of the American Musical Instrument Society, Vol. XIII, No. 2 (June 1984), p. 5.

"Clavichord Debuts," Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. XV, No. 4 (July 1988), p. 3.

"Bernard Brauchli of Boston Practices," Newsletter of the American Musical Instrument Society, Vol. XVII, No. 2 (June 1988), p. 15.

André P. Larson, The National Music Museum: A Pictorial Souvenir (Vermillion: National Music Museum, 1988), p. 44.

Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), pp. 7 & 9.

Donald H. Boalch, Makers of the Harpsichord and Clavichord 1440-1840. Third edition, edited by Charles Mould (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995), p. 465.

Margaret Downie Banks, "Krämer, Johann Paul (1843-1819)," The Harpsichord and Clavichord: an Encyclopedia, Igor Kipnis, editor (New York: Routledge, 2007), pp. 204 and 298.



NMM 13501. Clavichord by Henric Johan Söderström, Stockholm, 1815. Unfretted. FF-c4 (5+ octaves). FF-A triple-strung (2 × 8' and 1 × 4'); B-flat-a3 double-strung (2 × 8'). Ex coll.: Michael Latcham, The Hague, The Netherlands. Purchase funds gift of Christabel Gough, New York City, and friends, in memory of Hugh Gough, 2007.

Lit.:  John Koster, "The Stringing and Pitches of Historical Clavichords," in De Clavicordio:  Atti del Congresso Internazionale sul Clavicordo, Magnano, 1993, edited by Bernard & Susan Brauchli and Alberto Galazzo (Turin: Istituto per i Beni Musicale in Piemonte, 1994), pp. 229, 234-235, and 241.

Donald H. Boalch, Makers of the Harpsichord and Clavichord 1440-1840. Third edition, edited by Charles Mould (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995), pp. 634-635.

"Keyboards in Vermillion: with John Koster" (interview), Harpsichord & Fortepiano, 16, no. 2 (Spring 2012), p. 19.

Return to Keyboard Checklist Index


Pianos (European)
(in chronological order)

NMM 5055. Grand piano by Manuel Antunes, Lisbon, 1767

NMM 5055. Grand piano by Manuel Antunes, Lisbon, 1767. C-d3 (4+ octaves). Hand-operated una corda. Cristofori-type action. Ex coll.: Augusto Carvello Monteiro, Lisbon. Rawlins fund, 1990.

Click here to hear this piano (excerpt from Lodovico Giustini, Sonata No. 11 in E major, Allegro assai). From the CD, The Portuguese Fortepiano: 18th-Century Iberian Keyboard Music, available from the Museum's Gift Shop.

Lit.:  Musical Instruments, London, November 22, 1990 (London: Sotheby's, 1990), pp. 104-105.

"1990 Marked by More Incredible Acquisitions," Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. XVIII, No. 2 (January 1991), p. 1.

"Rare Piano Makes Debut," Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. XVIII, No. 3 (April 1991), pp. 3-4.

Rodger S. Kelly, A Catalog of European Pianos in The Shrine to Music Museum, M.M. Thesis (University of South Dakota: 1991), pp. 3-12.

Sally Prideaux, ed. Sotheby's Art at Auction 1990-91 (London: Sotheby's, 1991), p. 319.

André P. Larson, "Grand Piano, Manuel Antunes, Portugal, 1767," South Dakota Musician, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Winter 1993), cover and p. 24.

John Koster, "Foreign Influences in Eighteenth-Century French Piano Making," Early Keyboard Journal, Vol. 11 (1993), pp. 23-25.

David Sutherland, "Domenico Scarlatti and the Florentine Piano," Early Music, Vol. 23, No. 2 (May 1995), pp. 245.

Stewart Pollens, The Early Pianoforte (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 137-156.

Cremilde Rosado Fernandes, Ludovico Giustini di Pistoia, Sonate da Cimbalo di Piano, e Forte (Firenze, 1732) (Pacos de Brandao Codex, Portugal: Numerica Editora Discografica, 1996). CD.

Susanne Skyrm, Treasures of Iberian Keyboard Music on the Antunes Fortepiano (1767) (Berkeley, California: Music and Arts Program of America, Inc., 1997). CD.

Michael Cole, The Pianoforte in the Classical Era (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998), p. 17.

John Koster, "The 'Godoy' Broadwood Grand Pianoforte with Wedgwood and Tassie Mounts," The Heritage of Wedgwood, edited by Keith A. McLeod and James R. Boyle (Wedgwood International Seminars, 1998), pp. 212-228.

John Koster, "Three Grand Pianos in the Florentine Tradition," Musique-Images-Instruments, Vol. 4 (1999), pp. 94-116.

Edward Parmentier, The Portuguese Fortepiano: 18th-Century Iberian Keyboard Music (Berkeley, California: Wildboar, 1999). CD.

Cover, Piano Technicians Journal, Vol. 49, No. 12 (December 2006), cover, pp. 5 and 15.

John Koster, "Towards an Optimal Instrument:  Domenico Scarlatti and the New Wave of Iberian Harpsichord Making," Early Music, Vol. 35, No. 4 (November 2007), pp. 575-604.

"Instrumental Innovations," Wall Street Journal (December 7, 2007), p. W4.

John Koster, "Traditional Iberian Harpsichord Making in its European Context," Galpin Society Journal 61 (2008), pp. 8, 63.

Ted Muenster, "South Dakota's Shrine to Music," Prairie Fire 3, No. 4 (April 2009), p. 14.

Gerhard Doderer, "Remarks on Domenico Scarlatti’s Portuguese Period (1719-1729)," in Domenico Scarlatti en España / Domenico Scarlatti in Spain, Luisa Morales, ed. (Garrucha, Almería, Spain: Asociación Cultural LEAL, 2009), pp. 47-80 (especially fig. 10).

John Koster, "Domenico Scarlatti and the Transformation of Iberian Harpsichord Making," in Domenico Scarlatti en España / Domenico Scarlatti in Spain, Luisa Morales, ed. (Garrucha, Almería, Spain: Asociación Cultural LEAL, 2009), pp. 187-208 (especially p. 206 and fig. 15).

Susanne Skyrm, ed., with assistance from Calvert Johnston and John Koster, Anthology of Eighteenth-Century Spanish Keyboard Music for Organ, Piano, Harpsichord, or Clavichord (Colfax, North Carolina: Wayne Leupold Editions, 2010), p. 23.

"Keyboards in Vermillion: with John Koster" (interview), Harpsichord & Fortepiano, 16, no. 2 (Spring 2012), cover and p. 15.



NMM 13010.  Grand piano by Frantz Jacob Spath, Regensburg, 1767

NMM 13010. Grand piano (Pandaleon-Clavecin) by Frantz Jacob Spath, Regensburg, 1767. Handwritten paper label on the front of the wrestplank:  Frantz Jacob Spath. / Regenspurg 1767. Compass originally AA-e3 (4+ octaves; now C-g3). Stoßmechanik without escapement. The present hammers, hinged like the originals to a batten at the front edge of the soundboard, are replacements from the late eighteenth or early nineteenth century. There are now no dampers, pedals, or stops, but there is evidence of a hand-operated moderator, now missing, which had been added to the instrument at an early stage. The instrument might well be an example of the Pandaleons-Clavecins announced by Spath in 1765. Dampers might originally have been attached to the hammer shanks. Board of Trustees, 2006.

Lit.: John Koster, "An Early 'Mozart Piano' in Vermillion: Recent NMM Acquisition Authenticated as a Work of Frantz Jacob Spath," National Music Museum Newsletter 36, No. 1/2 (February/May 2009), pp. 10-13.

John Koster, "Among Mozart’s spättischen Clavier: a Pandaleon-Clavecin by Frantz Jacob Spath, Regensburg, 1767?," Early Keyboard Journal 25/26 (2010), pp. 153-223. Click here to access additional color and supplemental figures referenced in this article.

"Keyboards in Vermillion: with John Koster" (interview), Harpsichord & Fortepiano, 16, no. 2 (Spring 2012), cover and p. 15.



NMM 3586. Square piano by Johannes Zumpe and Gabriel Buntebart, Princes' Street, Hanover Square, London, 1776. GG, AA-f3 (4+ octaves). Three hand stops: damper (bass), buff, damper (treble). Rawlins fund, 1985.

Lit.:  Rodger S. Kelly, A Catalog of European Pianos in The Shrine to Music Museum, M.M.Thesis (University of South Dakota: 1991), pp. 67-75.

Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), p. 10.

Martha Novak Clinkscale, Makers of the Piano 1700-1820 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 333.

Erin Helyard, "Clementi the Heresiarch and a 'Black Joke' of English Domestic Keyboard Culture," Keyboard Perspectives (the Yearbook of the Westfield Center for Historical Keyboard Studies) IV (2011), pp. 1-26, specifically 17 (detail of the keyboard).



NMM 13263. Square piano by Joseph Anton Boos, Mainz, Germany, 1776. FF-f3 (5 octaves). Prellmechanik without escapement. One knee lever (missing):  dampers, treble and bass. Board of Trustees, 2007.

Lit.: Sabine K. Klaus, "Square Pianos in German-Speaking Areas at the Time of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Their Possible Uses in His Works," in Thomas Donahue, ed., Essays in Honor of Christopher Hogwood: The Maestro's Direction (Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press, 2011), pp. 157–179, specifically 167-168.



NMM 4653. Grand piano by Louis Bas, Villeneuve lès Avignon, France, 1781. FF-g3 (5+octaves). Two pedals (missing): una corda, dampers. Cristofori-type action. Rawlins fund, 1989.

Lit.:  Rodger S. Kelly, A Catalog of European Pianos in The Shrine to Music Museum, M.M.Thesis (University of South Dakota: 1991), pp. 13-22.

Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), p. 10.

Martha Novak Clinkscale, Makers of the Piano 1700-1820 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), pp. 17-18.

John Koster, "Foreign Influences in Eighteenth-Century French Piano Making," Early Keyboard Journal, Vol. 11 (1993), pp. 7-38.

John Koster, "Two Early French Grand Pianos," Early Keyboard Journal, Vol. 12 (1994), pp. 7-37.

John Koster, "Three Grand Pianos in the Florentine Tradition," Musique-Images-Instruments, Vol. 4 (1999), pp. 94-116.

Sheridan Germann, "Harpsichord Decoration: A Conspectus," in Howard Schott, ed., The Historical Harpsichord, Vol. 4 (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2002), pp. 1-213, specifically, p. 146.



NMM 4145.  Tangentenfluegel by Franz Jakob Spath & Christoph Friedrich Schmahl, Regensburg, 178[4]

NMM 4145. Tangentenflügel by Frantz Jacob Spath & Christoph Friedrich Schmahl, Regensburg, 178[4]. FF-f3 (5 octaves). Two hand stops: buff, moderator. Two knee levers: una corda, dampers. Rawlins fund, 1987.

Lit.:  Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. XVI, No. 3 (April 1989), p. 2.

"18th-Century Instruments Shown in Black Hills," Newsletter of the American Musical Instrument Society, Vol. XIX, No. 1 (February 1990), p. 23.

André P. Larson, Amadeus: His Music and the Instruments of Eighteenth-Century Vienna (Vermillion: Shrine to Music Museum, 1990), pp. 26-27.

Rodger S. Kelly, A Catalog of European Pianos in The Shrine to Music Museum, M.M. Thesis (University of South Dakota: 1991), pp. 52-59.

Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), pp. 7 & 10.

Martha Novak Clinkscale, Makers of the Piano 1700-1820 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 271.

Giovanni Paolo di Stefano, "The Tangentenflügel and Other Pianos with Non-Pivoting Hammers," Galpin Society Journal 61 (2008), pp. 95-96, 98.



NMM 5208. Square piano by Juan del Mármol, Seville, 1788. GG-g3 (5 octaves). Three hand stops: dampers (bass), buff, dampers (treble). Ex coll.: John Koster, New Bedford, Massachusetts. Purchase funds gift of Bruce and Susan Odson, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, and Arne B. and Jeanne F. Larson Fund, 1991.

Lit.:  Howard Schott, Victoria and Albert Museum: Catalogue of Musical Instruments, Vol. I, Keyboard Instruments (London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1985), p. 109.

Martha Novak Clinkscale, Makers of the Piano 1700-1820 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 195.

John Koster, "The 'Godoy' Broadwood Grand Pianoforte with Wedgwood and Tassie Mounts," The Heritage of Wedgwood, edited by Keith A. McLeod and James R. Boyle (Wedgwood International Seminars, 1998), pp. 212-228.

Beryl Kenyon de Pascual, "Some Aspects of the Square Piano in Spain," in Geschichte und Bauweise des Tafelklaviers (23. Musikinstrumentenbau-Symposium, October 2002; Michaelsteiner Konferenzberichte 68), ed. by Boje E. Hans Schmuhl and Monika Lustig (Augsburg: Wißner-Verlag, and Michaelstein: Stiftung Kloster Michaelstein – Musikinstitut für Aufführungspraxis, 2006), pp. 261-282, specifically pp. 262 and 264.

Susanne Skyrm, ed., with assistance from Calvert Johnston and John Koster, Anthology of Eighteenth-Century Spanish Keyboard Music for Organ, Piano, Harpsichord, or Clavichord (Colfax, North Carolina: Wayne Leupold Editions, 2010), p. 41.



NMM 2906. Portable grand piano by Davison and Redpath, London, 1789. Serial no. 46. FF-f3 (5 octaves). Ex coll.: Elizabeth Learned Peabody, Lake Forest, Illinois. Board of Trustees, 1982.

Lit.:  "The Eternal Quest," Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter , Vol. X, No. 1 (October 1982), p. 1.

Darcy Kuronen, A Pianoforte by Davison and Redpath, London, 1789: Its Historical Position and Restoration Consideration, M.M. Thesis (University of South Dakota: 1986).

Darcy Kuronen, "An Unusual English Fortepiano," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. III, No. 3 (June 1987), pp. 1-3.

André P. Larson, The National Music Museum: A Pictorial Souvenir (Vermillion: National Music Museum, 1988), pp. 19, 41, 42, and 45.

Rodger S. Kelly, A Catalog of European Pianos in The Shrine to Music Museum, M.M. Thesis (University of South Dakota: 1991), pp. 23-27.

Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), p. 10.

Martha Novak Clinkscale, Makers of the Piano 1700-1820 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 83.



NMM 14356. Grand piano by Vincenzio Sodi, Florence, 1789. Original compass FF to g3 (5+ octaves). Fraudulently rebuilt as a three-manual harpsichord by Leopoldo Franciolini, Florence, ca. 1900. Ex coll.: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Gift of John Koster and Jacqueline Block, Vermillion, South Dakota, 2008.

Lit.:  M. E. Brown, ed., The Crosby Brown Collection of Musical Instruments of All Nations:  Catalogue of Keyboard Instruments (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1903), pp. 92-97.

Emanuel Winternitz, Keyboard Instruments in The Metropolitan Museum of Art:  a Picture Book (New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1961), pp. 28-29.

Raymond Russell, The Harpsichord and Clavichord: an Introductory Study (London: Faber and Faber, 1959), p. 29.

Donald H. Boalch, Makers of the Harpsichord and Clavichord 1440-1840. Third edition, edited by Charles Mould (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995), p. 636.

John Koster, "Three Grand Pianos in the Florentine Tradition," Musique-Images-Instruments, Vol. 4 (1999), pp. 94-116.

María Virginia Rolfo, Vincenzio Sodi: Life and Work (M.M. thesis, Univeristy of South Dakota, 2011), pp. 186-195.



NMM 5259. Square piano, Germany, ca. 1790. FF-f3 (5 octaves). Two knee levers: dampers, buff (mechanism incomplete). Purchase funds given by Marilyn and Jim Nyberg, Yankton, South Dakota, 1991.

Lit.:  John Koster, "Woods in Early American Keyboard Instruments as Evidence of Origins," Postprints of the Wooden Artifacts Group, Presented at the 23rd Annual Meeting of the American Institute for Conservation, St. Paul, Minnesota, June 1995, pp. 15-16.

Sabine K. Klaus, "German Square Pianos with Prellmechanik in Major American Museum Collections: Distinguishing Characteristics of Regional Schools in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries," Journal of the American Musical Instrument Society Vol. XXIV (1998), p. 38.



NMM 6207. Grand piano by Matthäus Heilmann, Mainz, ca. 1790. Serial no. 252. FF-f3 (5 octaves). Two knee levers: dampers, moderator. Ex coll.: Wolfgang Ruf, Emmetten, Switzerland. Rawlins fund, 1999.



NMM 14336. Square piano, South or Central Germany, ca. 1790. FF-f3 (5 octaves). Prellmechanik with intermediate lever, without escapement. Two knee levers: buff, dampers. Gift of the Ralph K. Ritchie Family, Kent, Connecticut, 2008.



NMM 1217. Square piano by Johannes Broadwood, Great Pulteney Street, Golden Square, London, 1791. Serial no. 1499. FF-f3 (5 octaves). Arne B. Larson Collection, 1979.

Lit.:  "Galleries II and III to Open November 15," Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. III, No. 1 (October 1975), p. 1.

André P. Larson, The National Music Museum: A Pictorial Souvenir (Vermillion: National Music Museum, 1988), pp. 19 and 42.

Rodger S. Kelly, A Catalog of European Pianos in The Shrine to Music Museum, M.M. Thesis (University of South Dakota: 1991), pp. 76-84.

Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), p. 10.

Malcolm Rose and David Law, A Handbook of Historical Stringing Practice for Keyboard Instruments 1671-1856 (Lewes, England: Malcolm Rose and David Law, 1991), pp. 66 and 179.

Martha Novak Clinkscale, Makers of the Piano 1700-1820 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 32.

John Koster, "The Divided Bridge, Due Tension, and Rational Striking Point in Early English Grand Pianos," Journal of the American Musical Instrument Society, Vol. XXIII (1997), pp. 26-27.



NMM 5281. Grand piano by Matthew and William Stodart, London, 1795. FF-c4 (5+ octaves). Two pedals: una corda, dampers. Ex colls.: Alec Cobbe, Hatchlands Park, East Clandon, Surrey, England; Ian Pleeth, Hulcott, Aylesbury, England. Rawlins fund, 1992.

Lit.:  Alec Cobbe, A Century of Keyboard Instruments 1760- 1860 (Cambridge, England: Fitzwilliam Museum, 1983), p. 26.

Martha Novak Clinkscale, Makers of the Piano 1700-1820 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 285-286.

John Koster, "The Divided Bridge, Due Tension, and Rational Striking Point in Early English Grand Pianos," Journal of the American Musical Instrument Society, Vol. XXIII (1997), pp. 7, 14, 29-32.

Susanne Skyrm, ed., with assistance from Calvert Johnston and John Koster, Anthology of Eighteenth-Century Spanish Keyboard Music for Organ, Piano, Harpsichord, or Clavichord (Colfax, North Carolina: Wayne Leupold Editions, 2010), p. 55.



NMM 5657. Grand piano by Ferdinand Hofmann, Vienna, ca. 1795. FF-g3 (5+ octaves). Knee lever: dampers. Hand stop: moderator. Rawlins fund, 1993.

Lit.:  Michael Latcham, The Stringing, Scaling and Pitch of Hammerflügel Built in the Southern German and Viennese Traditions 1780-1820, Musikwissenschaftliche Schriften, Band 34 (Munich and Salzburg: Musikverlag Katzbichler, 2000), Vol. 1, pp. xv, 34, 49, and 69; Vol. 2, pp. 146, 147, 155, 188, 189, and 190.

Grant O’Brien, "Criteria for the Determination of Original Stringing in Historical Keyboard Instruments: The Cautionary Tale of a 1785 Longman and Broderip Harpsichord," in John Koster, ed., Aspects of Harpsichord Making in the British Isles (The Historical Harpsichord, Vol. 5; Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2009), pp. 154-226, specifically p. 189.



NMM 4570.  Harp-shaped piano by Gottifried Maucher, Konstanz, Germany, 1787

NMM 4570. Harp-shaped piano by Gottfried Maucher, Konstanz, Germany, 1797. FF-f3 (5 octaves). Two hand stops: moderator, harp (mechanism incomplete). Board of Trustees, 1989.

Lit.:  Rodger S. Kelly, A Catalog of European Pianos in The Shrine to Music Museum, M.M.Thesis (University of South Dakota: 1991), pp. 60-66.

Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), p. 10.

Martha Novak Clinkscale, Makers of the Piano 1700-1820 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 250.

Sabine Klaus, "Der Instrumentenmacher Johann Matthäus Schmahl (1734-1793) im Spiegel der Ulmischen Intelligenzblatter," Zeitschrift fur Organologie, Vol. 1 (Nürnberg: Germanisches Nationalmuseum, 1998), pp. 73, 75, and 80.

Sabine K. Klaus, "German Square and Harp-Shaped Pianos with Stoßmechanik in American Collections: Distinguishing Characteristics of Regional Types in the Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries," Journal of the American Musical Instrument Society, Vol. XXVII (2001), pp. 128-134.

Sabine K. Klaus, "Forschungsgegenstand Tafelklavier—Problemstellungen, Lösungsversuche und Konsequenzen," in Geschichte und Bauweise des Tafelklaviers (23. Musikinstrumentenbau-Symposium, October 2002; Michaelsteiner Konferenzberichte 68), ed. by Boje E. Hans Schmuhl and Monika Lustig (Augsburg: Wißner-Verlag, and Michaelstein: Stiftung Kloster Michaelstein – Musikinstitut für Aufführungspraxis, 2006), pp. 19-33, specifically p. 21.



NMM 2716. Square piano by George Astor, 79 Cornhill, London, ca. 1797-1807. Serial no. 1314. FF-f3 (5 octaves). Two hand stops: buff, dampers. Ex coll.: Sara Frishmuth, Philadelphia; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Board of Trustees, 1980.

Lit.:  Rodger S. Kelly, A Catalog of European Pianos in The Shrine to Music Museum, M.M. Thesis (University of South Dakota: 1991), pp. 85-90.

Malcolm Rose and David Law, A Handbook of Historical Stringing Practice for Keyboard Instruments 1671-1856 (Lewes, England: Malcolm Rose and David Law, 1991), pp. 71 and 180.

Martha Novak Clinkscale, Makers of the Piano 1700-1820 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 7.



NMM 3890. Square piano by Robert Marr "from London," Edinburgh, ca. 1799. FF-f3 (5 octaves). Gift of Maria Norton, Muscatine, Iowa, 1985.

Lit.:  Rodger S. Kelly, A Catalog of European Pianos in The Shrine to Music Museum, M.M.Thesis (University of South Dakota: 1991), pp. 91-92.

Martha Novak Clinkscale,  Makers of the Piano 1700-1820 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), pp. 195-196.



NMM 13212. Grand piano by James Ball, London, ca. 1800. FF-c4 (5+ octaves). Two pedals:  una corda, dampers. Gift of Tom and Rachel Williams, Estes Park, Colorado, 2007.



NMM 5944. Square piano by John Longman & Co., London, ca. 1805. FF-c4 (5+ octaves). One pedal (now missing): dampers. Gift of David R. Bolton, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 1996.



NMM 6138. Square piano by John Broadwood and Sons, London, ca. 1810-1815. FF-c4 (5+ octaves). One pedal (now missing): dampers. Gift of Ruby Schieck, Sacramento, California, 1998.



NMM 3587.  Grand piano by Anton Martin Thym, Vienna, ca. 1815

NMM 3587. Grand piano by Anton Martin Thÿm, Vienna, ca. 1815. Serial no. 94. FF-f4 (6 octaves). Seven pedals: una corda, harp, bassoon, dampers, strong moderator, medium moderator, and Janissary (bells and drum). Restoration funds gift of Stella Anker, Vermillion. Rawlins fund, 1985.

Lit.:  André P. Larson, The National Music Museum: A Pictorial Souvenir (Vermillion: National Music Museum, 1988), pp. 19, 42, and 44.

Rodger S. Kelly, A Catalog of European Pianos in The Shrine to Music Museum, M.M. Thesis (University of South Dakota: 1991), pp. 28-34.

Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), pp. 7 & 10.

"Viennese Grand Piano Will Debut on November 7," Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. XXI, No. 1 (October 1993), pp. 1-2.

André P. Larson, "Grand Piano, Anton Markus Thÿm, Vienna, ca. 1810-15," South Dakota Musician 28, No. 1 (Fall 1993), cover and p. 22.

Martha Novak Clinkscale, Makers of the Piano 1700-1820 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 298.

Edward Kottick, "Early Keyboard Instruments in European Museums," Continuo, Vol. 20, No. 2 (April 1996), pp. 20-21.

André P. Larson, Beethoven: Musical Treasures from The Age of Revolution and Romance, with essays by John Eliot Gardner, William Meredith, and Gerhard Stradner, exhibition catalog, Bowers Museum of Cultural Art, Santa Ana, California, January 30-March 21, 1999 (Santa Ana: The Bowers Museum, 1999), back cover, inside back cover, back of title page, pp. 4 and 36.

André P. Larson, "Beethoven & Berlioz . . . Major Exhibition to Open in Sioux Falls on September 12," National Music Museum Newsletter 30, No. 3 (August 2003), p. 3.

André P. Larson, Beethoven & Berlioz, Paris & Vienna: Musical Treasures from the Age of Revolution & Romance 1789-1848, with essay by John Koster, exhibition catalog, Washington Pavilion, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, September 12-November 2, 2003 (Vermillion: National Music Museum 2003), pp. 18, 74, and 75.



NMM 14357. Grand piano by Michael Rosenberger, Vienna, ca. 1815. FF-f4 (6 octaves). Five pedals:  una corda, bassoon, dampers, dampers plus moderator, and moderator. Instrument shortened to about half its original length, but keyboard and hammer action are in nearly pristine condition. Gift of John Koster and Jacqueline Block, Vermillion, South Dakota, 2008.



NMM 6094. Orphica (portable piano) attributed to Joseph Klein, Vienna, ca. 1815-1825. c-c4 (4 octaves). Rawlins fund, 1997.

Lit.:   John Koster, "Museum Acquires Rare Viennese Orphica: An Instrument 'For the Night, For Friendship, For Love,'" America's Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. XXV, No. 4 (August 1998), pp. 4-5.

André P. Larson, Beethoven: Musical Treasures from The Age of Revolution and Romance, with essays by John Eliot Gardner, William Meredith, and Gerhard Stradner, exhibition catalog, Bowers Museum of Cultural Art, Santa Ana, California, January 30-March 21, 1999 (Santa Ana: The Bowers Museum, 1999), p. 5.

André P. Larson, Beethoven & Berlioz, Paris & Vienna: Musical Treasures from the Age of Revolution & Romance 1789-1848, with essay by John Koster, exhibition catalog, Washington Pavilion, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, September 12-November 2, 2003 (Vermillion: National Music Museum 2003), p. 80.

Benjamin Vogel, "Orphicas--Genuine, Less Genuine and Fakes," The Galpin Society Journal, Vol. 57 (May 2004), pp. 19-45 and 204-205.



NMM 11697. Square piano by Clementi and Co., London, ca. 1817. Serial no. 11649 (in the series of square pianos). FF-c4 (5+ octaves). One pedal:  dampers. Gift of Shirley Stein, Springfield, Pennsylvania, 2006.

Lit.:  N. E. Michel, Historical Pianos, Harpsichords and Clavichords (Pico Rivera, California: the author, 1970), p. 200.



NMM 2761. Upright grand piano by Clementi and Co., London, ca. 1818. Serial no. 1154 (in the series of grand pianos). FF-f4 (6 octaves). Two pedals: una corda, dampers. Board of Trustees, 1981.

Lit.:  André P. Larson, The National Music Museum: A Pictorial Souvenir (Vermillion: National Music Museum, 1988), pp. 19, 42, and 45.

Rodger S. Kelly, A Catalog of European Pianos in The Shrine to Music Museum, M.M. Thesis (University of South Dakota: 1991), pp. 107-116.

Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), p. 10.

Martha Novak Clinkscale, Makers of the Piano 1700-1820 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 75.



NMM 3332. Grand piano by William Stodart, Golden Square, London, ca. 1820-21. CC-c4 (6 octaves). Two pedals: una corda, dampers. Board of Trustees, 1983.

Lit.:  André P. Larson, The National Music Museum: A Pictorial Souvenir (Vermillion: National Music Museum, 1988), pp. 19 and 45.

Rodger S. Kelly, A Catalog of European Pianos in The Shrine to Music Museum, M.M. Thesis (University of South Dakota: 1991), pp. 35-43.

Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), p. 11.

Malcolm Rose and David Law, A Handbook of Historical Stringing Practice for Keyboard Instruments 1671-1856 (Lewes, England: Malcolm Rose and David Law, 1991), pp. 37 and 164.

Martha Novak Clinkscale, Makers of the Piano 1700-1820 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 288.



NMM 4328.  Square piano by Andre Stein, Vienna, ca. 1820-1830

NMM 4328. Square piano by André Stein, Vienna, ca. 1820-1830. FF-f4 (6 octaves). Two pedals: moderator, dampers. Transfer from Harvard University, Cambridge, 1988.

Lit.:  Susan Thompson, Checklist of Historical Musical Instruments (Cambridge: Harvard University, 1986), p. 11.

Rodger S. Kelly, A Catalog of European Pianos in The Shrine to Music Museum, M.M. Thesis (University of South Dakota: 1991), pp. 93-98.

Martha Novak Clinkscale, Makers of the Piano 1700-1820 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 280.

John Koster, "A Downstriking Grand Piano by Nannette Streicher and Son," Journal of the Westfield Center 16, No. 1 (May 2003), pp. 3-5.

André P. Larson, Beethoven & Berlioz, Paris & Vienna: Musical Treasures from the Age of Revolution & Romance 1789-1848, with essay by John Koster, exhibition catalog, Washington Pavilion, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, September 12-November 2, 2003 (Vermillion: National Music Museum 2003), pp. 16 and 76.

Roland Hentzschel, "Die Werkstätten von Matthäus Andreas Stein und Carl Andreas Stein," in Das Wiener Klavier bis 1850, ed. by Beatrix Darmstädter, Alfons Huber, and Rudolf Hopfner (Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 2007), pp. 95-109, specifically pp. 97, 100, 103, and 104.



NMM 3123. Lyraflugel by Johann Christian Schleip, Berlin, ca. 1825. FF-f4 (6 octaves). Three knee levers: una corda, bassoon, dampers. Rawlins fund, 1982.

Lit.:  "Important Acquisitions Made by Museum in 1982," Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. X, No. 2 (January 1983), p. 2.

"'Schubertiade' Enjoyed by Capacity Audience," Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. X, No. 4 (July 1983), p. 2.

"Scully Duo-Piano Team Will Perform Sept. 30," Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. X, No. 4 (July 1983), p. 3.

André P. Larson, The National Music Museum: A Pictorial Souvenir (Vermillion: National Music Museum, 1988), pp. 18, 19, and 42.

Rodger S. Kelly, A Catalog of European Pianos in The Shrine to Music Museum, M.M. Thesis (University of South Dakota: 1991), pp. 117-122.

Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), pp. 10-11.

Martha Novak Clinkscale, Makers of the Piano 1700-1820 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 245.



NMM 10775. Square piano by Goulding & D’Almaine, London, ca. 1825. Serial no. 4719. FF-f4 (6 octaves). One pedal: dampers. Gift of Marilyn Clark, Lawrence, Kansas, in memory of J. Bunker Clark (1931-2003), 2004.

Lit.:  Martha Novak Clinkscale, Makers of the Piano, Volume 2, 1820-1860 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), p. 150.



NMM 10298.  Grand piano by Nannette Streicher und Sohn, Vienna, 1829

NMM 10298. Grand piano by Nannette Streicher und Sohn, Vienna, 1829. Serial nos. 2316 (cumulative) and 136 (of this model). CC-f4 (6+ octaves). Three pedals: una corda, due corde, dampers. Downstriking action, patented by Johann Baptist Streicher in 1823. Purchase funds gift of Tom and Cindy Lillibridge, Bonesteel, South Dakota, 2003.

Lit.:  André P. Larson, "Four Centuries of Great Keyboard Instruments: What They Tell Us," National Music Museum Newsletter 30, No. 1 (February 2003), pp. 1-2.

John Koster, "A Downstriking Grand Piano by Nannette Streicher and Son," Journal of the Westfield Center 16, No. 1 (May 2003), pp. 3-5.

André P. Larson, Beethoven & Berlioz, Paris & Vienna: Musical Treasures from the Age of Revolution & Romance 1789-1848, with essay by John Koster, exhibition catalog, Washington Pavilion, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, September 12-November 2, 2003 (Vermillion: National Music Museum 2003), pp. 17, 78-79.

"Keyboards in Vermillion: with John Koster" (interview), Harpsichord & Fortepiano, 16, no. 2 (Spring 2012), pp. 15 and 19.



NMM 1386. Square piano by John Broadwood and Sons, Makers to His Majesty and the Princess, Great Pulteney Street, Golden Square, London, ca. 1829. Serial no. 38491. FF-f4 (6 octaves). One pedal (on left side): damper. Ringley Fund, 1976.

Lit.:  "Early Instruments Heard," Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 2 (April 1979), p. 2.

André P. Larson, The National Music Museum: A Pictorial Souvenir (Vermillion: National Music Museum, 1988), pp. 19 and 42.

Rodger S. Kelly, A Catalog of European Pianos in The Shrine to Music Museum, M.M. Thesis (University of South Dakota: 1991), pp. 99-106.

Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), p. 10.



NMM 5797. Square piano by Geronimo Bordas, Barcelona, ca. 1830. FF-g4 (6+ octaves). One knee lever (possibly replacing an original pedal) to raise the dampers. German-type action (Prellmechanik with brass Kapseln) without escapement. Gift of William Stein, Kalamazoo, Michigan, in memory of Dean Dreyer, 1994.

Lit.:  John Koster, "Third Iberian Piano Enters the Museum's Collections," Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. XXIII, No. 3 (January 1996), pp. 6-7.

Beryl Kenyon de Pascual, "Some Aspects of the Square Piano in Spain," in Geschichte und Bauweise des Tafelklaviers (23. Musikinstrumentenbau-Symposium, October 2002; Michaelsteiner Konferenzberichte 68), ed. by Boje E. Hans Schmuhl and Monika Lustig (Augsburg: Wißner-Verlag, and Michaelstein: Stiftung Kloster Michaelstein – Musikinstitut für Aufführungspraxis, 2006), pp. 261-282, specifically pp. 268-269.

Susanne Skyrm, ed., with assistance from Calvert Johnston and John Koster, Anthology of Eighteenth-Century Spanish Keyboard Music for Organ, Piano, Harpsichord, or Clavichord (Colfax, North Carolina: Wayne Leupold Editions, 2010), p. 41.



NMM 9979. Square piano by Tomas Miñaca, Madrid, ca. 1830. FF-f4 (6 octaves). Two pedals (missing): dampers, harp or bassoon (?; mechanism incomplete). Standard English-type double action. Gift of Susan Tattershall, Lafayette, Colorado, and George Lucktenberg, Waleska, Georgia, 2001.



NMM 14479.  Square piano by Andre Stein, Vienna, ca. 1830-1842

NMM 14479. Square piano by André Stein, Vienna, ca. 1830-1842. CC-g4 (6+ octaves). Two pedals: moderator, dampers. Transfer from Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles, 2010.



NMM 10106. Grand piano by Ignace Pleyel, Paris, 1832. Serial no. 1864. CC-f4 (6+ octaves). Two pedals: una corda, dampers. Ex coll.: M. Le Baron R. Fagel, The Netherlands' Minister Plenipotentiary to France. Board of Trustees, 2002.

Lit.:  André P. Larson, Beethoven & Berlioz, Paris & Vienna: Musical Treasures from the Age of Revolution & Romance 1789-1848, with essay by John Koster, exhibition catalog, Washington Pavilion, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, September 12-November 2, 2003 (Vermillion: National Music Museum 2003), p. 77.



NMM 10774. Grand piano by Clementi & Company (as on nameboard; also labeled COLLARD & COLLARD, late Clementi, Collard & Collard on wrest-plank yoke), London, 1832. Serial no. 25256. FF-f4 (6 octaves). Two pedals: una corda, dampers. Gift of Marilyn Clark, Lawrence, Kansas, in memory of J. Bunker Clark (1931-2003), 2004.

Lit.:  Martha Novak Clinkscale, Makers of the Piano, Volume 2, 1820-1860 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. 88-89.



NMM 5321. Grand piano attributed to William Stodart & Son, London, ca. 1835. Serial no. 9327. CC-f4 (6+ octaves). Two pedals: una corda, dampers. Compensation-tube frame, invented by James Thom and William Allen. Purchase funds gift of Carole and Bruce Stavens, Sioux City, Iowa, 1992.



NMM 4378. Euphonicon (harp-piano) by F. Beale and Company, Regent Street, London, ca. 1841-43. Invented by John Steward, Wolverhampton, Staffordshire, England. Serial no. 201. CC-f4 (6+ octaves). Two pedals: una corda, dampers. Rawlins fund, 1988.

Lit.:  Newsletter of the American Musical Instrument Society, Vol. XVIII, No. 1 (February 1989), p. 9.

Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. XVI, No. 3 (April 1989), p. 2.

Rodger S. Kelly, A Catalog of European Pianos in The Shrine to Music Museum, M.M. Thesis (University of South Dakota: 1991), pp. 123-130.

Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), p. 10.



NMM 2367. Cottage piano by John Broadwood and Sons, Manufacturers to her Majesty, Great Pulteney Street, Golden Square, London, ca. 1842. FF-f4 (6 octaves). Two pedals: una corda, dampers. Board of Trustees, 1978.

Lit.:  Peter Gammond, Musical Instruments in Color (New York: Macmillan, 1975), plate 44.

"Early Instruments Heard," Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 2 (April 1979), p. 2.

André P. Larson, The National Music Museum: A Pictorial Souvenir (Vermillion: National Music Museum, 1988), p. 19.

Rodger S. Kelly, A Catalog of European Pianos in The Shrine to Music Museum, M.M. Thesis (University of South Dakota: 1991), pp. 131-136.

Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), p. 10.



NMM 13550. Grand piano by Ignaz Bösendorfer, Vienna, ca. 1847-1850. Serial no. 2726. AAA-a4 (7 octaves). Viennese action. Two pedals: shift (una corda), dampers. Gift of Davidi Gilo, Palo Alto, California, 2007.



NMM 5984. Grand piano by Erard, Paris, 1849. AAA-a4 (7 octaves). Two pedals: una corda, dampers. Gift of David Moore, Jacksonville, Texas, 1996.

Lit.:  John Koster, "Texan Donates Important French Grand Piano from Chopin's Paris of the 1840s," Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. XXIV, No. 1 (October 1996), pp. 4-5.



NMM 6199. Cabinet piano by John Broadwood and Sons, London, ca. 1850-1855. Serial no. 8666. CC-f4 (6-1/2 octaves). Two pedals: una corda, dampers. Gift of Maximiliaan Rutten, New York, 1998.



NMM 14800. Grand piano by John Broadwood and Sons, London, ca. 1857. Serial no. 18807. CC-a4 (6-3/4 octaves). Two pedals: una corda, dampers. Gift of Jean Rankin, Anaconda, Montana, 2013.



NMM 13540.Upright piano by John Broadwood and Sons, London, ca. 1864. Serial no. 26231. Cottage upright model. AA-a4 (85 notes). Two pedals: moderator, dampers. Gift of Robert Haber, New York City, 2007.



NMM 2371. Upright piano by John Broadwood and Sons, London, ca. 1868. Serial no. 33399. AAA-a4 (7 octaves). Two pedals: una corda, dampers. Board of Trustees, 1978.

Lit.:  Rodger S. Kelly, A Catalog of European Pianos in The Shrine to Music Museum, M.M. Thesis (University of South Dakota: 1991), pp. 137-139.



NMM 4332. Upright piano by C. Oehler, Stuttgart, ca. 1873-1925. Serial no. 2633. AAA-a4 (7 octaves). Two pedals: soft (half-blow), dampers. Gift of Jan Brown, Wayne, Nebraska, 1988.

Lit.:  Rodger S. Kelly, A Catalog of European Pianos in The Shrine to Music Museum, M.M. Thesis (University of South Dakota: 1991), pp. 140-144.



NMM 4186. Semi-grand piano by John Broadwood and Sons, London, ca. 1876. Serial no. 9942. AAA-a4 (7 octaves). Two pedals: una corda, dampers. Purchase funds given by Jeannette Abbey, Brookings, South Dakota, 1987.

Lit.:  "Jeannette Abbey Donates Funds for Rare Pianos," Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. XVI, No. 1 (October 1988), p. 2.

Rodger S. Kelly, A Catalog of European Pianos in The Shrine to Music Museum, M.M. Thesis (University of South Dakota: 1991), pp. 44-51.

Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), p. 10.



NMM 4195. Upright piano by Stephen Hartley, London and Halifax, after 1882. Serial no. 2460. AAA-a4 (7 octaves). Two pedals: moderator, dampers. Gift of Mark E. Muchow, Parker, Colorado, in honor of his brother, Todd Muchow, 1987.

Lit.:  Rodger S. Kelly, A Catalog of European Pianos in The Shrine to Music Museum, M.M. Thesis (University of South Dakota: 1991), pp. 145-147.



NMM 3584. Upright piano by J. and W. Shepherd, London, ca. 1885-99. Serial no. 3724. AAA-a4 (7 octaves). Two pedals: moderator, dampers. Arne B. Larson Collection, 1979.

Lit.:  Rodger S. Kelly, A Catalog of European Pianos in The Shrine to Music Museum, M.M. Thesis (University of South Dakota: 1991), pp. 148-151.



NMM 1281. Upright piano by Karl Hiller, Berlin, ca. 1920. Distributed by Aengenheyster, Ltd., Sydney, Australia. Serial no. 2918. AAA-a4 (7 octaves). Two pedals: soft (half-blow), dampers. Board of Trustees, 1975.

Lit.:  Rodger S. Kelly, A Catalog of European Pianos in The Shrine to Music Museum, M.M. Thesis (University of South Dakota: 1991), pp. 152-153.

Return to Keyboard Checklist Index


Pianos (American)
(in chronological order)

NMM 4430. Square piano by Charles Albrecht, Philadelphia, ca. 1795. FF-f3 (5 octaves). One hand stop: dampers. Purchase funds given by Jeannette Abbey, Brookings, South Dakota, 1987.

Lit.:  "Jeannette Abbey Donates Funds for Rare Pianos," Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. XVI, No. 1 (October 1988), p. 2.

Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), p. 11.

Martha Novak Clinkscale, Makers of the Piano 1700-1820 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 4.



NMM 4010. Cabinet upright piano by Robert & William Nunns, New York, ca. 1823-33. Serial nos. 11398 and 964. FF-f4 (6 octaves). Two pedals: una corda, dampers. Rawlins fund, 1986.

Lit.:  Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), p. 11.



NMM 2864. Square piano by John Kearsing 'from London' for John J. Rickers, New York, ca. 1825

NMM 2864.  Square piano by John Kearsing "from London" for John J. Rickers, 187 Broadway, New York, ca. 1825. Serial no. 857. FF-f4 (6 octaves). One pedal: dampers. Gift of Marilynn L. Collins, Flossmoor, Illinois, in memory of her father, Wyman H. Carey, pianist, 1981.

Lit.:  Anne Gallagher, "She Remembers Pops: One Piano's Story," The Star/Tribune (July 19, 1981), p. 4.

"Ornately-decorated Piano Restored to Former Elegance," Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. XI, No. 1 (October 1983), p. 4.

André P. Larson, The National Music Museum: A Pictorial Souvenir (Vermillion: National Music Museum, 1988), p. 57.

Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), p. 11.

Martha Novak Clinkscale, Makers of the Piano 1700-1820 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 165.

John Koster, "The Technological Development of the Piano in American Squares," in Geschichte und Bauweise des Tafelklaviers (23. Musikinstrumentenbau-Symposium, October 2002; Michaelsteiner Konferenzberichte 68), ed. by Boje E. Hans Schmuhl and Monika Lustig (Augsburg: Wißner-Verlag, and Michaelstein: Stiftung Kloster Michaelstein – Musikinstitut für Aufführungspraxis, 2006), p. 294.



NMM 4918. Square piano by Wilkie, Medcalf, and Bogardus, New York, ca. 1827. FF-f4 (6 octaves). One pedal: dampers. Gift of Edith M. Sloan, Waynesville, North Carolina, in memory of her mother, Isabelle White Mackinnon, 1990.

Lit.  John Koster, "The Technological Development of the Piano in American Squares," in Geschichte und Bauweise des Tafelklaviers (23. Musikinstrumentenbau-Symposium, October 2002; Michaelsteiner Konferenzberichte 68), ed. by Boje E. Hans Schmuhl and Monika Lustig (Augsburg: Wißner-Verlag, and Michaelstein: Stiftung Kloster Michaelstein – Musikinstitut für Aufführungspraxis, 2006), p. 296.



NMM 6102. Square piano by Alpheus Babcock "for R. Mackay," Boston, ca. 1828. Serial no. 346. FF-c4 (5+ octaves). Pedal: dampers. Gift of Jerry L. and Libbie Bowder, Gorham, Maine, 1997.

Lit.:  John Koster, "The Technological Development of the Piano in American Squares," in Geschichte und Bauweise des Tafelklaviers (23. Musikinstrumentenbau-Symposium, October 2002; Michaelsteiner Konferenzberichte 68), ed. by Boje E. Hans Schmuhl and Monika Lustig (Augsburg: Wißner-Verlag, and Michaelstein: Stiftung Kloster Michaelstein – Musikinstitut für Aufführungspraxis, 2006), p. 295.



NMM 14613. Square piano by Alpheus Babcock "for John G. Klemm," Boston, ca. 1828. Serial no. 456. FF-c4 (5+ octaves). Pedal: dampers. John G. Klemm was a Philadelphia music publisher and dealer. Purchase funds in memory of John Randolph Waltner (1938-2011), Sioux Falls, from his family and friends, 2011.



NMM 4919. Square piano by Emilius N. Scherr, Philadelphia, ca. 1835-40. Serial no. 710. FF-f4 (6 octaves). Two pedals: moderator, dampers. Gift of Carey Howlett, Williamsburg, Virginia, 1990.

Lit.:  John Koster, "The Technological Development of the Piano in American Squares," in Geschichte und Bauweise des Tafelklaviers (23. Musikinstrumentenbau-Symposium, October 2002; Michaelsteiner Konferenzberichte 68), ed. by Boje E. Hans Schmuhl and Monika Lustig (Augsburg: Wißner-Verlag, and Michaelstein: Stiftung Kloster Michaelstein – Musikinstitut für Aufführungspraxis, 2006), pp. 298-299.



NMM 14768. Square piano by Chickering and Mackays, Boston, 1839. Serial no. 3987. FF-f4 (6 octaves). Two pedals: dampers and treble dampers. Gift of Peter Jensen, Moorestown, New Jersey, 2013.



NMM 4891. Square piano by Knabe, Gaehle, and Co., Baltimore, ca. 1839-54. Serial no. 2577. FF-f4 (6 octaves). Two pedals: moderator, dampers. Gift of Richard Hart, Sturgis, South Dakota, in memory of his wife, Esther Ruppel Hart, 1990.



NMM 3540. Square piano with æolian attachment (combined piano and reed organ) by Timothy Gilbert and Co., Boston, ca. 1853. Serial no. 4422. FF-a4 (6+ octaves). Four pedals: swell, dampers, moderator, bellows. Gift of Patricia K. Moore, Raleigh, North Carolina, 1985.

Lit.:  Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), p. 11.



NMM 10776. Square piano by Chickering & Sons, Boston, ca. 1855. FF-f4 (6 octaves). Two pedals: moderator, dampers. Gift of John Jensen, Los Angeles, California, 2004.



NMM 1213. Square piano by J. and C. Fischer, New York, ca. 1858. Serial no. 5978. AAA-a4 (7 octaves). Two pedals: moderator, dampers. Gift of Dr. & Mrs. Thomas Eyres, Vermillion, 1972.

Lit.:  Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), p. 11.



NMM 5723. Square piano by Hallet, Davis & Co., Boston, ca. 1858. Serial no. 6249. CC-C5 (7 octaves). Three pedals: moderator, bass (?) dampers, dampers. Gift of Helen Dorothea and Paul S. Mefford, Laurens, Iowa, 1993.

Lit.:  John Koster, "Square Piano by Hallet, Davis & Co., Boston, About 1858," The Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. XXII, No. 3 (April 1995), pp. 4-5.

John Koster, "The Technological Development of the Piano in American Squares," in Geschichte und Bauweise des Tafelklaviers (23. Musikinstrumentenbau-Symposium, October 2002; Michaelsteiner Konferenzberichte 68), ed. by Boje E. Hans Schmuhl and Monika Lustig (Augsburg: Wißner-Verlag, and Michaelstein: Stiftung Kloster Michaelstein – Musikinstitut für Aufführungspraxis, 2006), pp. 299 and 301.



NMM 5413. Grand piano by Chickering & Sons, Boston, 1864. Serial no. 26950. AAA-c5 (7+ octaves). Two pedals: dampers, una corda. Brown action. Gift of Terry Adler, Corte Madera, California, in memory of Sylvia Frantz Adler (1918-1992), 1993.

Lit.:  "1864 Grand Piano a Gift from San Francisco,"The Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. XX, No. 4 (August 1993), p. 4.



NMM 14447.  Square piano by William Knabe and Co., Baltimore, ca. 1865

NMM 14447. Square piano by William Knabe and Company, Baltimore, ca. 1865. Serial no. 4362. AAA-a4 (7 octaves). Two pedals: moderator, dampers. Gift of Loretta Loop Smith, Pebble Beach, California, 2010.



NMM 3581. Square piano by Haines Brothers, New York, ca. 1866. Serial no. 8853. AAA-a4 (7 octaves). Two pedals: moderator, dampers. Arne B. Larson Collection, 1979.



NMM 3173. Concert grand piano by Steinway and Sons, New York, 1867. Serial no. 15395. AAA-c5 (7+ octaves). Two pedals: una corda, dampers. Gift of the Benedictine Sisters of the Sacred Heart Convent and the Mount Marty College Music Department, Yankton, South Dakota, 1982.

Lit.:  Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), p. 11.



NMM 6104. Upright piano by Steinway and Sons, New York, 1867. Serial no. 14334. AAA-a4 (7 octaves). Two pedals: half blow, dampers. Gift of Roy F. Kehl, Evanston, Illinois, 1998.



NMM 2558. Upright piano by Decker Brothers, New York, ca. 1870. Serial no. 5341. AAA-c5 (7+ octaves). Two pedals: half blow, dampers. Arne B. Larson Collection, 1979.



NMM 3583. Square piano by Mathushek Piano Manufacturing Company, New Haven, Connecticut, ca. 1871. Serial no. 5186. AAA-c5 (7+ octaves). Two pedals: moderator, dampers. Arne B. Larson Collection, 1979.

Lit.:  John Koster, "The Technological Development of the Piano in American Squares," in Geschichte und Bauweise des Tafelklaviers (23. Musikinstrumentenbau-Symposium, October 2002; Michaelsteiner Konferenzberichte 68), ed. by Boje E. Hans Schmuhl and Monika Lustig (Augsburg: Wißner-Verlag, and Michaelstein: Stiftung Kloster Michaelstein – Musikinstitut für Aufführungspraxis, 2006), pp. 301-302.



NMM 1215. Square piano by Steinway and Sons, New York, 1872. Serial no. 25577. AAA-a4 (7 octaves). Two pedals: moderator, dampers. Arne B. Larson Collection, 1979.

Lit.:  John Koster, "The Technological Development of the Piano in American Squares," in Geschichte und Bauweise des Tafelklaviers (23. Musikinstrumentenbau-Symposium, October 2002; Michaelsteiner Konferenzberichte 68), ed. by Boje E. Hans Schmuhl and Monika Lustig (Augsburg: Wißner-Verlag, and Michaelstein: Stiftung Kloster Michaelstein – Musikinstitut für Aufführungspraxis, 2006), pp. 302-303.



NMM 1214. Concert grand piano by Chickering and Sons, Boston, ca. 1884. Serial no. 68245. AAA-c5 (7+ octaves). Three pedals: una corda, bass dampers, dampers. Gift of Ravenswood Congregational Church, Chicago, and Yankton College, Yankton, South Dakota, 1970.

Lit.:  André P. Larson, The National Music Museum: A Pictorial Souvenir (Vermillion: National Music Museum, 1988), p. 56.

Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), p. 11.



NMM 1212.  Upright piano ('giraffe') by Schimmel and Nelson, Faribault, Minnesota, ca. 1889

NMM 1212. Upright piano ("giraffe") by Schimmel and Nelson, Faribault, Minnesota, ca. 1889. Serial no. 1186. AAA-c5 (7+ octaves). Two pedals: half blow, dampers. Arne B. Larson Collection, 1979.

Lit.:  André P. Larson, The National Music Museum: A Pictorial Souvenir (Vermillion: National Music Museum, 1988), p. 56.

Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), p. 11.



NMM 2673.  Square piano by William Knabe and Company, Baltimore, 1891

NMM 2673. Square piano by William Knabe and Company, Baltimore, 1891. Serial no. 33795. AAA-c5 (7+ octaves). Two pedals: moderator, dampers. Gift of Max Siler Wehrly, Arlington, Virginia, in memory of his mother, Maude Siler Wehrly (1877-1955), 1980.

Lit.:  "Virginia Man Donates 1891 Piano by Knabe of Baltimore," Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. VIII, No. 1 (October 1980), p. 3.

André P. Larson, The National Music Museum: A Pictorial Souvenir (Vermillion: National Music Museum, 1988), p. 57.

Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), p. 11.

John Koster, "The Technological Development of the Piano in American Squares," in Geschichte und Bauweise des Tafelklaviers (23. Musikinstrumentenbau-Symposium, October 2002; Michaelsteiner Konferenzberichte 68), ed. by Boje E. Hans Schmuhl and Monika Lustig (Augsburg: Wißner-Verlag, and Michaelstein: Stiftung Kloster Michaelstein – Musikinstitut für Aufführungspraxis, 2006), pp. 303-304.



NMM 2559. Upright piano ("Grand a la Pompadour") by Jacob Doll, New York, ca. 1900-1910. AAA-c5 (7+ octaves). Three pedals: quarter blow, half blow, dampers. Arne B. Larson Collection, 1979.

Lit.:  Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), p. 11.



NMM 4087. Spinet piano by Lauter Humana Company, Newark, New Jersey, ca. 1919-20. Serial no. 56503. CC-c4 (6 octaves). Two pedals: una corda, dampers. Lenox vertical piano action. Gift of G. William Eibert, Alexandria, Virginia, 1986.



NMM 3281. Spinet piano by Wurlitzer, Chicago, ca. 1937. Serial no. 158290. AAA-c5 (7+ octaves). Three pedals: half blow, bass dampers, dampers. Gift of Harriet Montgomery, Aberdeen, South Dakota, 1983.

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Pipe Organs
(in chronological order)

NMM 4031.  Chest organ by Johannes Jacob Hannss, northern Germany, ca. 1620

NMM 4031.   Chest organ by Johannes Jacob Hannss, northern Germany, ca. 1620.  Engraved on a square tin pipe:   Joh / Jacob / Hannss / C.  Single manual (45 keys; short octave), hand-operated bellows. Six stops; 390 pipes. Rawlins fund, 1986.

Stop List:
Doppelter Zimbal 1/6', Flöte Major 8', Flöte Minor 4', Oktave 2', Doppelte Mixtur 1/2', Prinzipal 1'

Lit.:  "1986 Acquisitions at USD Music Museum," Newsletter of the American Musical Instrument Society, Vol. 16, No. 1 (February 1987), p. 6.

André P. Larson, The National Music Museum: A Pictorial Souvenir (Vermillion: National Music Museum, 1988), p. 43.

Darcy Kuronen, "Keyboard Instruments at The Shrine to Music Museum," Early Keyboard Studies Newsletter, Vol. VI, No. 1 (October 1991), p. 10.

Jürgen-Peter Schindler, Die Nürnberger Stadtorgelmacher und ihre Instrument (Nürnberg:  Verlag des Germanischen Nationalmuseums, 1995), pp. 49, 60, 72, 84.

John Koster, "Historical Organs in the Museum Context," The Tracker, Vol. 50, Nos. 3 & 4 (Summer/Fall 2006), p. 31.



NMM 4897.  House organ by Josef Loosser, Lueppfertsweil, Gemind Cappel, St. Gall, 1786

NMM 4897.  House organ by Josef Looßer, Lüppfertsweil, Gemeind Cappel, St. Gall (Switzerland), 1786. Engraved on center pipe: 1786 / isl. Handwritten in ink on paper at back of pallet box: Durch Joseph Looßer Orgeln Macher Von Lüppertsweil in der gemeind Cappel in Toggenburg / 1786:. Single manual, tracker action, C-c3 (49 keys).  Six stops; 294 pipes. Case exterior painted in traditional style of the Toggenburger valley. Gilded carvings in front of pipes and at top of marbled cornices. Ex coll.: Lady Berkeley, Assisi, Italy. Purchase funds gift of Margaret Ann and Hubert H. Everist, Sioux City, Iowa, 1990.

Stop list:

Copel 8' (wood)
Principal 4' (wood and metal)
Floten 4' (wood)
Octav 2' (wood and metal)
Quint 1/3' (wood and metal)
Subteroctav 1 (wood and metal)

Lit.:  Advertisement, Martin Goetze and Dominic Gwynn, Organbuilders, Early Music, Vol. 17, No. 3 (August 1989), p. 473.

André P. Larson, "Museum Acquires Rare 18th-Century Swiss Organ," The Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. 28, No. 1 (October 1990), pp. 1-2.

"1990 Acquisitions at USD Music Museum," Newsletter of the American Musical Instrument Society, Vol. 20, No. 1 (February 1991), p. 8.

Nina G. Taylor, "Adding to Collections:  Instruments to Make Music (and Spirits) Soar," Museum News, Vol. 70 (March-April 1991), p. 32.

Susan Ferré, "Raising the Raisin Organ," The Tracker, Vol. 50, No. 2 (Spring 2006), p. 36.

John Koster, "Historical Organs in the Museum Context," The Tracker, Vol. 50, Nos. 3 & 4 (Summer/Fall 2006), pp. 32 and 35.



NMM 4905.  Pipe organ by Christian Dieffenbach, Bethel Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1808

NMM 4905. Church organ by Christian Dieffenbach, Bethel Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1808. Gold stencilled signature on front of 1884 nameboard (same text handwritten on back of nameboard): Built 1808, by Christ Dieffenbach, Berks Co., Pa. / [within unfurling banner] Rebuilt 1884, by Thos Dieffenbach Millersburg, Pa. Single manual, tracker action, C-d3 (51 keys). Six original stops; three stops and pedalboard added by Thomas Dieffenbach in 1884. Polychromed case pipes painted by Thomas Dieffenbach's nephew, Jacob Dieffenbach. Built for Zion Lutheran and Reformed Church near Orwigsburg, Pennsyvania. Dedicated October 16, 1808. Arne B. & Jeanne F. Larson Fund and J. Laiten Weed Estate, 1990.

Stop List:

Principal 4' (bass and tenor pipes in façade)
Quint 3' (bass pipes in façade)
Salicet 4'
Gedackt 8' (wood pipes)
Flöte 4' (open wood pipes)
Octave 2'

1884 additions by Thomas Dieffenbach (preserved separately):

Open diapason 8'
Dulciana 8'
Subbass 16'
Pedalboard (CC-g; 20 notes)

Lit.:  Thomas S. Eader, "The 1808 Christian Dieffenbach Organ," The Tracker, Vol. 15, No. 3 (Spring 1971), pp. 2-4.

Raymond J. Brunner, That Ingenious Business:  Pennsylvania German Organ Builders (Birdsboro, Pennsylvania:   The Pennsylvania German Society, 1990), p. 117.

"Pennsylvania German Organ Installed in Abell Gallery," The Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. 19, No. 1 (October 1991), pp. 1-2.

"Dieffenbach Organ Installed at USD," Newsletter of the American Musical Instrument Society, Vol. 21, No. 1 (February 1992), p. 10.

André P. Larson, "Early American Pipe Organ," South Dakota Musician, Vol. 26, No. 2 (Winter 1992), cover and p. 22.

John Koster, "Dieffenbach Organ a Monument to Early American Craftsmanship and Musical Culture," Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. 23, No. 3 (April 1996), pp. 4-6.

John Koster, "A Pennsylvania Organ in South Dakota," The Tracker, Vol. 50, No. 2 (Spring 2006), p. 37.

John Koster, "Historical Organs in the Museum Context," The Tracker, Vol. 50, Nos. 3 & 4 (Summer/Fall 2006), pp. 32 and 35.

Gregory Crowell, "A Familiar Voice in a Foreign Land," The Tracker, Vol. 51, No. 3 (Summer 2007), p. 4.



NMM 13402. Chamber organ by Henry Erben, New York, 1838. Compass: C to c4 (5 octaves). Inscription on the nameboard:  HENRY ERBEN, / NEW-YORK.; written in pencil inside the pallet box:  W F Berry March 1st 1838. The stops are controlled by two pedals to be held down by the player’s left foot. The right pedal works the feeder bellows. Ex coll.:  Alan Laufman, Harrisville, New Hampshire; The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Gift of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2007.

Stop List:

Dulciana 8' (open metal from g to c4; stopped wood bass)
Principal 4' (open metal from c to c4; no pipes in bass octave, C to B)



NMM 10778.  Chamber organ by David Dutton, Mont Vernon, New Hampshire, ca. 1850

NMM 10778.  Chamber organ by David Dutton, Mont Vernon, New Hampshire, about 1850. Compass:  GG (dummy GG# key) to a3 (5+ octaves). Two pedals:  swell (left) and bellows (right). Gift of W. Thomas Edwards in memory of Stephen E. Long, Seattle Washington, 2004.

Inscription on the nameboard:  D. Dutton / Mt Vernon, N.H. / Patent. The last word refers to U.S. Patent no. 5,520, issued to David Boardman of Mont Vernon, N.H., on April 18, 1848. In this instrument David Dutton applied Boardman’s invention of “placing a partition of coarse cotton cloth” in the foot of each pipe. “By means of the partition of cloth the air is divided into a great number of small streams before it rushes out of the eduction passage . . . .  By such division or by some other cause not known the tone of the pipe is very highly improved.” Otherwise, the pipes, all of wood, are traditional in construction and very conservative in their voicing on low wind pressure, with no nicking of the windway.

Stop List (names in italics as on the six stop knobs):

Stopped Diapason 8', on permanently, GG to F#
Stop Diapason 8', G to f# (open from c to f#)
Open Diapason 8', g to a3
Dulciana 8', g to a3
Principal 4' bass, G to f#)
Principal 4' treble, g to a3
Stopped Flute 4', g to a3

Lit.:  John Koster, "A Chamber Organ from the Granite State Goes on Exhibit in the Abell Gallery," National Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. 33, No. 2 (May 2006), pp. 4-5.

John Koster, "Historical Organs in the Museum Context," The Tracker, Vol. 50, Nos. 3 & 4 (Summer/Fall 2006), pp. 31 and 35.



NMM 10070.  Reproduco pipe organ-player piano by Operators Piano Company, Chicago, ca. 1920.  Embossed on iron frame: OPERATORS PIANO CO / CHICAGO.  Serial number 283,087.  Two manuals (piano lower and organ upper manual), AAA-c5 (piano), c-c4 (organ), pneumatic action.  Four ranks.  85 pipes.  Venetian swell.  The Reproduco pipe organ-player piano was intended for two main markets, the mortuary trade and the silent movie theatre.  Gift of Kristina and James Ahlrichs, West Lafayette, Indiana, 2001.

Stop list:

Diapason
Flute
Quintadena
Tremolo

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Practice Keyboards
(in chronological order)

NMM 13776. Practice clavier (mute piano) by Virgil Practice Clavier Company, New York, 1896. Serial no. 3683. AAA-c5 (7+ octaves). Gift of Solveig Korte, Vermillion, 2008.



NMM 4037. Practice clavier (mute piano) by Virgil Practice Clavier Company, New York, 1899. Serial no. 5798. AAA-c5 (7+ octaves). Gift of John S. and Margaret Glossinger, Sioux City, Iowa, 1986.



NMM 13571. Practice clavier (mute piano) by Virgil Practice Clavier Company, New York, ca. 1900-1905. Serial no. 6339. AAA-c5 (7+ octaves). Gift of Frances Fox, Providence, Rhode Island, 2008.



NMM 14419. Practice clavier (mute piano) by The Virgil Piano School Co., Bergenfield, New Jersey, and New York City, ca. 1901-1912. Serial no. 1879. Tekniklavier model. AAA-c5 (7+ octaves). Gift of A. DeWayne & Theo Rayburn Wee, Northfield, Minnesota, 2009.



NMM 4071. Practice keyboard (mute), ca. 1900-1920. AAA-c5 (7+ octaves). Folding. Gift of Dr. James Garrick, Hillsborough, California, 1986.



NMM 14426. Practice keyboard (mute) by Pratt, Read & Co., Ivoryton, Connecticut, ca. 1953. Tru-Touch model. C-c3 (4 octaves). Gift of June Mills, St. Edward, Nebraska, 2009.

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Mechanical Keyboards
(in chronological order)

NMM 3738. Upright piano with automatic player mechanism ("Empress Electric") by Washburn Lyon & Healy, Chicago, ca. 1900-15. Serial no. 20105. AAA-c5 (7+ octaves). Coin-operated, electric. Gift of Harold P. Sutton, McCook, Nebraska, 1977.



NMM 3739. Orchestrion by Rudolph Wurlitzer Company, Cincinnati, ca. 1912-13. Distributed by Jacobek Brothers, Chicago. Serial no. 18177. AAA-c5 (7+ octaves). Coin-operated, electric. Gift of Harold P. Sutton, McCook, Nebraska, 1977.


NMM 6022.  Orchestrion by J. P. Seeburg Company, Chicago, ca. 1913

NMM 6022. Orchestrion by J. P. Seeburg Company, Chicago, ca. 1913. Serial no. 7165. Style G. AAA-c5 (7+ octaves). Includes piano, two ranks of organ pipes (flute and violin), mandolin, snare drum, bass drum, timpani, cymbal, and triangle. Torch-style art glass. Coin-operated, electric. Gift of Douglas and Phyllis Adam, Yankton, South Dakota, 1996.

Lit.:  André P. Larson, "Early 20th-Century Technology...'Nobody Can Listen to it Without Smiling!'" America's Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter 24, No. 2 (January 1997), pp. 1-2.

André P. Larson, "Orchestrion by J. P. Seeburg," The South Dakota Musician (Winter 1997), cover and p. 18.



NMM 14434. Upright piano with player mechanism (Hammond Melo-Harp) by the Straube Co., Hammond, Indiana, ca. 1916-17. Serial no. 26494. AAA-c5 (7+ octaves). Three pedals: half blow, "melo-harp" (tabs with staples for a jarring, "honky-tonk" tone), dampers. Purchased by Perry Fulton Pinkerton for his wife, Isadora, in 1918. Delivered by train and wagon to the family farmhouse in Quimby, Iowa, where it remained until coming to the NMM, this player piano filled family events with music and provided accompaniment for dancing. Gift of Edward and James Pinkerton, grandsons of Perry Fulton Pinkerton and Isadora Ruoff Pinkerton, in memory of their parents, Ross and Arlene Pinkerton, Quimby, Iowa, 2009.



NMM 2899. Upright piano with player mechanism by B. H. Janssen, New York, for Wilcox & White Company, Meriden, Connecticut, after 1919. Serial no. 15780. AAA-c5 (7+ octaves). Two pedals: half blow, dampers. Gift of John Connelly, Matteson, Illinois, 1981.



NMM 10070.  Reproduco pipe organ-player piano by Operators Piano Company, Chicago, ca. 1920.  Embossed on iron frame: OPERATORS PIANO CO / CHICAGO.  Serial number 283,087.  Two manuals (piano lower and organ upper manual), AAA-c5 (piano), c-c4 (organ), electro-pneumatic action.  Four ranks.  85 pipes.  Venetian swell.  The Reproduco pipe organ-player piano was intended for two main markets, the mortuary trade and the silent movie theatre.  Gift of Kristina and James Ahlrichs, West Lafayette, Indiana, 2001.

Stop list:

Diapason
Flute
Quintadena
Tremolo



NMM 4184. Upright piano with player action by Ellwood (Wurlitzer), Chicago, ca. 1927. Player action by Melville Clark Piano Company, DeKalb, Illinois. Serial no. 79273. AAA-c5 (7+ octaves). Two pedals: half blow, dampers. Gift of Harry A. and Audrey M. (Grubb) Vogt and Family, Yankton, South Dakota, 1987.

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Experimental Keyboards
(in chronological order)

NMM 4168.  Upright piano by Decker Brothers, New York, ca. 1895

NMM 4168. Upright piano by Decker Brothers, New York, ca. 1895. Paul von Janko experimental 6-6 keyboard. Serial no. 25089. AAA-c5 (7+ octaves). Two pedals: half blow, dampers. Gift of Mrs. Merritt A. Williamson, Nashville, Tennessee, in memory of her husband, 1987.

Lit.:  Musical Six-Six Newsletter, Vol. 12, No. 2, Issue 32 (1983), p. 1.

"Important Acquisitions Made by Museum in 1987," Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. XV, No. 2 (January 1988), p. 2.

"Rare Piano Received," Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. XV, No. 3 (April 1988), p. 4.

André P. Larson, The National Music Museum: A Pictorial Souvenir (Vermillion: National Music Museum, 1988), pp. 56 and 63.



NMM 4873. Upright piano by Kranich and Bach, New York, 1903. C. Charles Ruck experimental 6-6 keyboard ("convertone"), ca. 1953. Serial no. 40556. AAA-c5 (7+ octaves). Three pedals: half blow, moderator, dampers. Donated by Robert S. Ruck, Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin, 1989.

Lit.:  Thomas S. Reed, "Commentary on the Notation and Keyboard of C. Charles Ruck," Musical Six-Six Newsletter, Vol. 15, No. 2, Issue 38 (1986), pp. 34-41.

Thomas S. Reed, "[Interview with] Robert Ruck," Musical Six-Six Newsletter, Vol. 15, No. 2, Issue 38 (1986), pp. 42-47.

C. Charles Ruck, edited by Thomas S. Reed (1986), "The Musical Notation Systems and Keyboard of C. Charles Ruck," (November 27, 1953), Musical Six-Six Newsletter, Vol. 15, No. 2, Issue 38 (1986), pp. 48-57.



NMM 12726. Experimental keyboard by Orville T. Wood, Phoenix, ca. 1970. Howe-Way 6-3-3 model. Each octave contains 6 white keys, 3 black raised keys, and 3 red raised keys. AAA-c5 (7+ octaves). Installed by donor in upright piano by B. H. Janssen, New York City, 1914. Serial no. 29880. Gift of Thomas S. Reed, Kirksville, Missouri, 2007.



NMM 4196. Experimental keyboard by Orville T. Wood, USA, ca. 1971. Howe-Way 6-3-3. Each octave contains 6 white keys, 3 black raised keys, and 3 red raised keys. AAA-c5 (7+ octaves). Gift of Thomas S. Reed, Kirksville, Missouri, 1987.

Lit.:  Orville T. Wood, "The Howe-Way, 6-3-3, Keyboard," Musical Six-Six Newsletter, Vol. 1, No. 1, Issue 1 (1972), pp. 1-4.

"Roger Williams [Interview]," Modern Keyboard Review (January/February 1971), reprinted in Musical Six-Six Newsletter, Vol. 1, No. 1, Issue 1 (1972), cover and p. 3.

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Modern Instruments of Historical Types
(in chronological order)

NMM 12655. Octave spinet by Peter Harlan, Markneukirchen, 1931. C-c3 (4 octaves); 1 x 4'. Gift of Paul and Jean Christian, St. Paul, Minnesota, 2006.


NMM 6075. Clavichord by Robert Goble, Oxford, 1948. Unfretted. AA-e3 (4+ octaves). Double strung (2 x 8'). Soundboard painted by Elizabeth Goble (the maker's wife), for whom the instrument was made. Gift of Paul and Janet Goble, Lincoln, Nebraska, 1997.

Lit.:  Wolfgang Joachim Zuckermann, The Modern Harpsichord (New York: 1969), p. 121.

"Recent Acquisitions," America's Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. XXV, No. 1 (October 1997), p. 7.



NMM 1204. Spinet by Alec Hodsdon, Lavenham, Suffolk, England, 1949. Single manual, C-e3 (4+ octaves); 1 x 8'. Arne B. Larson Collection, 1979.



NMM 13403. Spinet by Hugh Gough, London, 1957. Single manual, FF-f3 (5 octaves); 1 x 8'. Gift of Christabel Gough, 2007.



NMM 2873. Clavichord by Zuckermann Harpsichords, Stonington, Connecticut, built by Darcy Kuronen, Vermillion, 1981. Fretted, C/E-c3 (4 octaves), after anonymous 17th-century German model. Board of Trustees, 1981.



NMM 3494. Fortepiano by Frank Hubbard Harpsichords, Waltham, Massachusetts, built by Darcy Kuronen, Vermillion, 1984. FF-f3 (5 octaves), after J. A. Stein, 1784. One knee lever: dampers. Board of Trustees, 1983.



NMM 5779. Harpsichord by Thomas and Barbara Wolf, The Plains, Virginia, 1994; after Jacques Germain, Paris, 1785 (NMM 3327). Double manual, FF-f3 (5 octaves); 2 x 8', 1 x 4', buff. Three hand stops, shove coupler. Soundboard painted by Sheridan Germann, Boston, 1994. Purchase funds gift of Stella Anker, Vermillion; Margaret Ann Everist, Sioux City, Iowa; Clifford Graese, Windermere, Florida; and, Marjorie Townsley Rawlins, Balboa Island, California, 1994.

Lit.:  Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter, Vol. XXII, No. 2 (January 1995), p. 6.

John Koster, "Restoration, Reconstruction and Copying in Musical-Instrument Collections," Museum International, Vol. 189, No. 1 (January-March 1996), pp. 36-40.



NMM 10755. Grand piano by Thomas and Barbara Wolf, The Plains, Virginia, 2004; after Johann Schantz, Vienna, ca. 1800. FF-g3 (5+ octaves). Knee lever: dampers. Hand stop: moderator. Board of Trustees, 2004.

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